Insanity In Stephen Kings Why We Crave Horror Movies

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Insanity In Stephen Kings Why We Crave Horror Movies

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why we crave horror movies

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Such was the vision of H. This type of fiction doesn't just scare you with big, ugly monsters—though it can certainly have them—it depresses you with the fatalistic implication of being insignificantly powerless before such vast, unknowable and fundamentally alien entities. Answering "No" to more than two of these means that the work is probably not a Cosmic Horror Story, although it may share tropes with the genre. Note that the scale and stakes of the story is allowed to go much lower than the above implies; the fate of the world need not be at stake to qualify as a Cosmic Horror Story, as long as the implication remains clear that The Universe is Scary and some truly horrific things can happen if you look too deeply.

In the last few decades it's become fairly popular to invert the common indifference of the Cosmic Horror Story setting, while still keeping it every bit as horrifying, by incorporating elements such as Your Mind Makes It Real , Sense Freak , and Humans Are Cthulhu. Such settings are usually still classed as Cosmic Horror, and are embodied by the works of Clive Barker , and the Warhammer games. In such settings humans often learn that they really do matter, and their emotions and desires really can shape reality Very likely to use Paranoia Fuel and invoke an atmosphere similar to Room ; both tropes play with the fear of that unknown thing that happens to traumatize all those who encounter it.

Cosmic Plaything could be viewed as this on a much, much smaller scale. Lovecraft , a Cosmic Horror Story need not refer to the Mythos or borrow from its imagery. Lovecraft Lite goes a step further than that by either giving the setting some genuine hope or playing it for laughs. You take on the role of Charles W. Reed, an investigator in the s United States. As soon as you arrive in Oakmont, Massachusetts, you are led to investigate a mysterious flood inundating the city, in the hopes of shedding light on the darkness that has seized the place and corrupted the minds of the inhabitants - and yours Community Showcase More. Follow TV Tropes. You need to login to do this. Get Known if you don't have an account.

The scariest part? This can happen at ANY time Image courtesy of yohkai. Used with permission. Anime and Manga. Attack on Titan is set in a world where humanity is living in fear of a race of giant monsters called "Titans" who are driven solely by their desire to eat human beings. They don't do it to survive, but purely for pleasure. The only way to permanently kill them is to slice the back of their necks, as they can regenerate even from decapitation, and engaging one has an extremely high likeliness of dying. It ends up subverted in the end, though, as pretty much all of the Titans' evil can be traced back to very human antagonists , humanity outside the Walls is far from extinct, and at least some factions have become technologically advanced enough to be able to threaten the Titan-using faction.

Berserk operates somewhere between this and Lovecraft Lite. Far on the "cynical" end of the Sliding Scale of Idealism vs. Ruled by an Eldritch Abomination that can effortlessly crush realities just in passing? However, the antagonists, far from inhuman, are all-too human and their motivations are far from impersonal. That Eldritch Abomination is nothing more or less than humanity's collective unconscious made manifest. Final judgment on whether the story counts as this or Lovecraft Lite will likely hinge on its ending Bokurano , a deconstruction of different focus than Evangelion , yet similar to it: Something is making you fight in its super robot against other super robots, to decide the fate of the world and infinite numbers of other ones.

You will never have the slightest idea. The manga features one attempt at an explanation, but it really doesn't help make anything better: the Multiverse has a virtually infinite number of parallel universes constantly springing from slight divergences , but this apparently puts a strain on existence, and so the giant robot battles happen to be a "defense mechanism" to get rid of most universes with not enough divergence with each other. It's a whole new level of cosmic insignificance. Death Note establishes early on that the only reason humanity even exists is to act as a food source for death gods. The penultimate chapter goes the extra mile by stating in no uncertain terms that there isn't even an afterlife to look forward to.

Death Parade 's take on the afterlife falls right into this. If you die, you're faced with the binary options of continuing to reincarnate or being discarded and deleted from the system. The celestial bureaucracy decides which fate you get by subjecting you to an arbitrary, sadistic Secret Test of Character. The kicker? The whole system exists because the people running it are so detached from humanity that it's the only way they can think of to assess the human soul, and they neither know nor particularly care when they get it wrong, to the point where the higher-ups have had to bring in an assistant to mitigate the Quindecim staff's frequent fuckups and teach them about how humans work.

Devilman — thanks to humans being bastards killing the only people protecting them from demons, it leads to them being left alone against the enemy. At the very end, it's implied that humans have been all killed, leaving only demons and devilmen and then everybody except Satan dies. Oh and God is a gigantic Eldritch Abomination that kills anybody who gets too close it. AMON makes it even worse - God has put the entire world on a time loop so all humans and demons live and die for nothing over and over, just to make Satan suffer the loss of his beloved repeatedly for all eternity; it's also implied that this covers the whole Devilman franchise , with each of its iterations being another cycle of the loop.

However, it was reverted to its original form, a dinky little program from the early Internet with less power than a cheap calculator. The fact that the main writer is a contributor to the Cthulhu Mythos will not shock anyone who's watched the series, nor will the fact that he also wrote Serial Experiments Lain. Dragon Ball Super builds upon the original series by revealing that all intelligent life in the universe could be snuffed out of existence by a petulant god that not even Son Goku can beat.

Said god then reveals that there's a multitude of other universes, each with their own destructive gods and above all of them is a god who can wipe out entire universes with the flick of a wrist, usually because he finds them unappealing after a while. Getter Robo , especially when the nature of the Getter comes into question. Exactly what it is, is left up in the air, and its intentions may or may not be malevolent. The canonical manga Interquel that was never published would put both GunBuster and DieBuster in that territory, with revelation that, long story short, the Universe is one big Eldritch Abomination, the Space Monsters are its immune system and humanity can do nothing but desperately fight for survival, sacrificing their weapons and champions in the process.

Junji Ito 's works as a whole are heavily influenced by Lovecraft, but two examples particularly stand out: Remina : A newly discovered celestial body turns out to be a gigantic Planet Eater abomination, likely even a Star Eater, hurtling towards Earth and devouring every other celestial body in its path ; once it reaches Earth, it stops only long enough to "play" with its meal a bit, swallows the planet whole, and then continues on its rampage, leaving only a handful of human survivors within a specially-built survival shelter drifting aimlessly in space. Uzumaki : A town is built on top of an impossible spiral structure , which proceeds to cause increasingly horrible things to happen before absorbing the entire town.

It has done so countless times before and will do so countless times again. Neon Genesis Evangelion : A post-apocalyptic Crapsack World where a catastrophe caused by an ancient conspiracy meddling with Things Man Was Not Meant To Know led to the annihilation of half of humanity's population, with the remainder under the relentless attacks of "Angels": alien or not assailants whose motives and psychology we do not have an idea of.

Their biology becomes increasingly bizarre over the course of the series—even early specimens are stated to exhibit wave-particle duality , and one late Angel is a four-dimensional being with a three-dimensional "shadow". Later specimens appear to be evolving toward interfacing with humanity, which mainly just causes Mind Rape of various types. Various factions within the series vie for the opportunity to take down the Angels in the way they deem most appropriate, with the winner being the creation of equally nightmarish humongous mecha, but such a last resort requires the chosen pilots to be mentally ill and psychologically tortured in order for them to function.

The war only results in increasingly horrifying circumstances and adversaries, while a key benefactor of the protagonists is actually a Lovecraft-style Ancient Conspiracy who were always planning to use the Angels to resurrect an even worse alien God and cause The End of the World as We Know It In Their Own Image. In the end, the apocalypse is so incomprehensible it even also makes us real life humans go mad from the revelation. And please note that this summary actually leaves out several even more screwed-up revelations about the setting and characters. Puella Magi Madoka Magica : Oh, boy Long story short? Aliens with Blue-and-Orange Morality note basically a race of sociopaths among which emotions are treated as a form of mental illness harvest magical energy created from girls' suffering and eventual mutation into eldritch horrors in an attempt to stave off the impending death of the universe via the Second Law of Thermodynamics , and even they cannot even comprehend why only this Industrialized Evil works out of all things.

Sailor Moon : Sailor Stars , the last arc of the anime, reveals that Sailor Senshi exist across the galaxy and have all been engaged in an epic battle against evil. Sailor Galaxia, one of the strongest warriors, has been exterminating entire planets so that she can collect Star Seeds, which are souls. The manga is even worse : Galaxia, bad as she was, was also an unwitting pawn to the anthropomorphic personification of Chaos, which at the climax absorbs the source of the universe's life. Sure, Usagi destroys Chaos, restores life to the galaxy and resurrects all her dead friends , but we're told that Chaos has survived , and that one day it'll be back. Chaos is also the true evil in the anime as well. In the manga, it is also the true power behind every other major villain in the series.

The Sailor Senshi exist to fight it, and will likely be fighting it for eternity. Are You Busy? Will You Save Us? Nearly all life on the surface was wiped out by the 17 Beasts years prior to the main story. These creatures, as it turns out, inhabited the planet long before the other races and simply re-emerged to take back what was once theirs. In fact all of World End 's races were created when the Visitors, a race of godlike extraterrestrials, used their powers to transform those primordial Beasts into the various races that would inhabit their new garden world.

Comic Books. Donald tries out for a singing competition organized by a renowned musician, and gets successfully recruited by having his voice altered by an apparent twin of this musician. It's later revealed that the entire world is actually the dream of Ar-Finn, a primordial cephalophoid monster which slumbers in the ancient city of Sp'too at the bottom of the sea.

The two twins are manifestations of the monster's conflicting subconscious desires to either continue sleeping or wake up which Donald's voice will make it do. When the creature does exactly that, the rest of the world vanishes as it no longer creates the world-dream, and everything in its vicinity shapes itself into its image, resulting in Donald and his nephews growing tentacles and stick eyes. It's eventually put back to sleep, but the story ends on a rather dark note as Donald contemplates everybody's existence as mere parts of the creature's imagination.

El Eternauta. The aliens called "Hands", who are smarter and more evolved than human beings, are actually unwilling puppets of higher entities that they only dare to call "Them", and they even define "Them" as the "cosmic hate". Fall of Cthulhu by Boom! Their other lovecraftian series Cthulhu Tales however, being an Anthology Comic , had a lot of individual stories fall into Lovecraft Lite instead. The Filth , from Grant Morrison , arguably. But Secret Original is living in this: A Captain Ersatz of Golden Age Superman , he discovered his world had no free will and went to change this, by coming into reality. And the reality is: He is just a comic book character There was an Anthology Comic series from Vertigo called Flinch.

In one story, a massive fan of Lovecraft eventually grows up with the realization "We don't deserve monsters" and loses all wonder of creatures out there. It's still uncertain whether Hellboy and B. It appeared at first to be the latter, but the monsters are getting nastier, and Hellboy is getting increasingly desperate. Leviathan shown in Hellbound: Hellraiser II was described in supplementary graphic novels to be the true Eldritch Abomination.

The Cenobites, who function as its foot soldiers, were at least human once. Leviathan appears as nothing more than a floating geometric figure with Blue-and-Orange Morality. Immortal Hulk does this with gamma radiation, and therefore the entire Hulk mythos. In the second issue, when Del Frye was injected with a gamma-irradiated serum, he saw a "green door" that was "below everything" before dying. The next issue, Lew Lembert also mentions a "green door" but this time with what's beyond it: the One Below All. According to Brian Banner in issue 12, his research into gamma energy hypothesized a third form that energy takes when it's neither a wave or a particle, but when he had a nightmare of the Green Door and the One Below All he denounced it out of fear.

Issue 25 is an entire issue of the concept: the last survivors of a dead universe, faced with an unstoppable monstrosity they cannot comprehend. Jonathan Hickman's Avengers is this applied to an entire superhero multiverse; as its main Arc Words put it: "Everything Dies". A number of foundational Marvel heroes, including Iron Man , Mr. Fantastic , and Black Panther , are forced to judge whether to kill other Earths to temporarily save their own as The Multiverse is suddenly locked into an inescapable death spiral. One of them does. On the other side, the optimism of the likes of Captain America and the Great Society a Captain Ersatz Justice League of America from a parallel universe is ultimately exposed as meaningless and ineffective against the end of everything.

Oh, and also the beings in charge of running the Multiverse want to kill the Earth and any worlds in their way of doing that , and even they're on their last legs because they've been attacked by an unimaginable force far bigger and more powerful than themselves. By the end of the run it's revealed all of this is the result of cosmic beings known as the Beyonders living outside reality, who consider themselves Above Good and Evil. Everything has just been them conducting a callous experiment on the results of the destruction of all creation, and they've already slaughtered every high-tier cosmic being that might have been tasked with stopping them, with the few heroes that manage to confront them such as Thor and Hyperion being destroyed effortlessly.

The run concludes with Captain America and Iron Man, the leaders of Earth's Greatest Heroes, dying fighting each other out of spite over mutual betrayals as the universe explodes around them, and there was nothing anyone ever could have done to stop it. The followup Secret Wars has the final two universes die and the last plans by the Fantastic Four and allies to save even just a few people fail.

The only reason anything survives at all is because DOCTOR DOOM, ultimate villain of the Marvel Universe and the only one ruthless enough to truly do whatever it takes to defy the Beyonders, initiated the destruction of countless universes himself, including many of those the heroes dealt with that morally shattered them. He seized enough power in the wake of this to forge their remains into a new planet so brutal its inhabitants refer to it as Battleworld, which he rules over as its tyrannical and unopposable god-king.

And after all this, it's clear to Doom that even this last outpost of any kind of known reality is broken, as a reflection of his own blighted soul. However, a few heroes and villains survive from the old multiverse to fight back against Doom, and the fate of the Beyonders is as yet unknown. Given this will end with the Marvel Multiverse restored for All-New All-Different Marvel, the whole saga retroactively becomes Lovecraft Lite , albeit running as hard as it can to the cynical end of the Sliding Scale of Idealism vs. Cynicism until the last minute. Both Marvel and DC are this to some extent, especially with the Brothers. Crisis Crossover events usually involve cosmic threats great enough to leave the world, if not the entire universe, fundamentally changed afterwards.

James Tynion IV's Memetic. The long and short of it is a meme of a sloth induces madness in people within twelve hours of seeing it, culminating in the human race fusing together into skyscraper-tall towers just in time to greet an incoming armada of Eldritch Abominations. It's implied that this was the reason for humans existing all along. In all three, things end as well as you would expect.

The Sandman stories focus on abstract beings of incomprehensible power and age that govern the whole of reality, and where supernovae exploding and wiping out solar systems of intelligent life are so common that they only mention them in passing. An example of a more Mind Screwingly surreal Cosmic Horror Story is A Tale of Two Cities , which is told in the manner of a Lovecraftian ghost story and has a man become lost in a city's dream i.

In Sandman , this sort of logic applies to many of the anthropomorphic personifications and their realms and meets a man who has been lost there for countless years, but still prefers the possibility of wandering through the city's dream to the alternative: "That the city should wake. That it should wake and-" but he gets distracted before he can tell us what might happen if a dreaming city woke up. In A Dream of a Thousand Cats it is shown that if enough people dream the same thing at once and it's not a large number, only a thousand or so they can not only directly change the physical world , they can change history so that the world has always been in its "new" form, and the "old" world not only ceases to exist, but is Ret Goned from the entirety of history so that it never existed at all.

That the Dreaming is a place inhabited by sentient creatures makes the end of A Game of You where Dream uncreates the skerry a land that is apparently as vast and heavily populated as a country a true Biblical apocalypse for its inhabitants. He quite casually confirms that he could recreate the land and resurrect the inhabitants exactly as they were before if he chose to, adding an almost Religious Horror to it, as it shows just how powerful he is, and how insignificant sentient beings are in comparison.

A story where Haroun-al Rashid makes a bargain with Dream to preserve his perfect, magical city from the inevitable ravages of time by giving the entire city to Dream to take into his realm and preserve it forever in his stories. The story is relatively Lighter and Softer compared to some of the others which tells you quite a lot about them! At the same time, one of these abstract beings Morpheus himself claims that he and his siblings are merely the servants, the dolls, of mortals. For better or for worse, mortals are the dominant power in creation.

Spawn combines this with Religious Horror and virtually every other horror subgenre : Humans are just pawns to a war between Heaven and Hell. It's mere chance, not the way you lived your life, that determine if you will go to one or the other. Also, going to Heaven isn't exactly a good thing because God and Satan Are Both Jerks ; while there is a benevolent entity that is even more powerful than both of them combined , she's too busy taking care of the whole Multiverse to pay attention to the comics' main setting.

Also, the Spawn franchise as a whole deals a lot with Fatalism a heavy element of Lovecraftian stories and the idea that fighting Evil is pointless. A possible interpretation of Warren Ellis ' Supergod , with the twist that humanity is ultimately responsible for the very creation of the incomprehensible god-things whose very existence renders it insignificant. The Thanos Imperative was a storyline where the main Marvel Universe was invaded by the Cancerverse, a version of the Marvel universe where every living thing in the universe was made immortal by Eldritch Abominations and turned into hideous tentacle-beard monsters in the process and got too full of its own version of life and started to invade other universes to spread.

The Unfunnies features a world of Hanna-Barbera style cartoon characters whose world, where a pie in the face was the worst crime, is corrupted into a horrific place of murder and abuse towards adults and children alike. A cop investigates and discovers they are being victimized by their monstrous creator, who wields godlike invincibility and successfully switches places with one of the characters to escape death row.

Grant Morrison 's Zenith mainly fought the Lloigor, shapeless body-stealing beings from beyond time and space who can consume reality. Turns out they're actually the first-generation superheroes who "self-evolved" into reality-warping Gods and subsequently went mad with power, but were forced to live outside normal space-time since their own universe was too fragile to hold them. And they want back in. Aftermath: Population Zero : After humanity vanishes, most signs of its civilization disappear within a few centuries' time, the remainder after the next ice age.

Other lifeforms move on and adapt. Planet Earth is 4. Alexwarlorn has written a number of these, many of which involve Meta elements played for horror, such as what happens to one-shot villains when they no longer matter and from a shown the fanbase despises but having no idea what's going on. While many have a happy ending , they're certainly this trope. Challenge of the Super Friends: The End , where the Legion of Doom travel to a horrific Lovecraftian universe and begin winding up like victims in the Event Horizon and Hellraiser films. The unseen Benefactor may well be an Ultimate Evil. In Total Drama fanfic The Doctor Will See You Now Chapter four has several sequences that hint at the return of something more powerful and terrifying than humans can logically comprehend.

It's not just the dead coming back to life or the animals fleeing, it's some unknown Thing breaking its way into a reality it is foreign to, and appears to have absolute power. The closest thing to an interaction between a force like this and a human, between and Gwen, shows just how hopelessly helpless humanity is to these forces. Many of the descriptions and themes feel akin to those of cosmic horror pioneer H. That's how much influence his works have on this story. In the Touhou fanfiction Imperfect Metamorphosis not even the most powerful denizens of Gensoukyou, working together and using their most potent attacks, do more than inconvenience either Yuuka or the Shadow Youkai , some of them barely surviving the encounters, with retribution being swift and terrible.

Yukari casually notes that she deals with similar - though not quite as bad - situations on a regular basis, and several characters, including Yuuka herself, state that there are far worse things out there. Ed, Edd n Eddy fanfiction Johnny. Not surprising, considering it has to top its already very disturbing predecessor, Eddward. The short version is that Double Dee's murders of most of the children in the previous story summon an entity known as The Darkness.

And since killing off almost the entire cast destroyed the balance of the world and the show, it consumes everything. Filled with Eldritch Abominations , Temporal Paradoxes , and Eldritch Locations caused by two nigh-omnipotent civilizations clashing. To players and main characters , the true nature of reality is the Awful Truth their investigations are building towards. Glitches in the Matrix, in particular, are rendered as Mind Screws that dismantle reality and put it back together wrong. Naruto fanfiction Obscuro is this, but it uses a different set of Eldritch Abominations - rather, demons and the like are the incomprehensible monsters.

Of Sheep and Battle Chicken full stop. While not much more apparent in the first installment than in canon Mass Effect , the sequel pieces, and the additional information document Fear Unrelenting, Seen Darkly ratchets up the Cosmic Horror hard. What would drive powerful, reality warping machines such as the Reapers , to recoil in pure terror? It's a slow burn at first, but once the Mythos elements start taking center stage, the heroes quickly learn how out of their depths they are, which ends up lampshaded by one of the antagonists: Ephraim : The universe cannot care about you, it never did, it never will.

Films — Animated. The Adventures of Mark Twain : The Mysterious Stranger creates a miniature civilization out of clay figures and bestows life on them only so that he can snatch it away again. He points out that he does not do this out of malice, as he has no concept of human morality. Films — Live-Action. Space is a vast, incomprehensible place that is completely apathetic towards humanity, and any sort of advanced life that we may encounter would be so advanced as to be utterly unfathomable to humanity, would likely either refuse to communicate with us or would communicate in an incomprehensible way with horrific consequences, and would view us with callous indifference at best, and at worst would view us as convenient tools or incidental curiosities in the same way that a small child dismembering an earthworm is curious.

AM features an Eldritch creature; the viewer is only able to see its eye and gaping maw through a deep hole in a cellar floor. The protagonist is lured into servitude to the creature after being drawn into a mysterious, abandoned radio station. Annihilation give us The Shimmer , a strange, complex alien entity that arrives to the Earth via a strange meteorite and does not one bit adhere to the law of physics as we know it, emanating a ever-growing dome of radiation that horrifically mutates every lifeform it comes into contact with, mashing together the DNA of things like Play-Doh, which creates vicious, disgusting monsters out of the wildlife.

And it's left entirely vague whether or not it is a malevolent entity seeking to destroy everything out of irrational hatred, or if it's so utterly alien to the point it doesn't even comprehend it's own existence, making it essentially an oversized cancer cell. The original ending to Army of Darkness had more than a touch of this as in it, Ash drinks too much of the sleeping potion and wakes up After the End , which given how freaky the scenery is was likely a result of the supernatural forces mentioned in the Necronomicon running rampant.

The movie Bug not to be confused with the Michael Shannon movie of the same name , is about blind, pyromaniac cockroaches who emerge from a fissure in the ground after an earthquake. A local scientist named Parmiter becomes curious about them, which gradually turns into an obsession, until it's apparent something else is compelling his actions, particularly cross-breeding them with regular cockroaches, so the subterranean insects can survive on the surface, and this is after one of them kills his wife. Turns out, it's the roaches themselves compelling him.

True to this genre, the movie ends with the insects' final form, now with eyes and wings, thanking him by dragging him back to Hell with them. Right from the start, The Cabin in the Woods shows that it's not your typical "dumb kids go in the middle of nowhere to get killed off one by one", given that everything is planned and monitored by a nebulous but obviously very well-funded organisation It's because that organisation's goal turns out to be to provide sadistic entertainment to beings known as the Ancient Ones, who'll otherwise destroy the world.

John Carpenter 's "apocalypse trilogy" The Thing , Prince of Darkness , and In the Mouth of Madness is an escalation of the trope over the 3 movies: first, a protean , invasive lifeform threatening to subsume in itself every living thing on the planet in a desolate antarctic setting reminiscent of H. Lovecraft 's At The Mountains Of Madness ; then a liquid corruption that turns out to be Satan , and whose goal is to bring to our world its true father, the Anti-God , in an old church being investigated by academics from an establishment similar to Miskatonic University; and finally, ineffable, unreal horrors attempting to find purchase in our reality through the writings of a Mad Artist and his previously-fictitious Town with a Dark Secret in the middle of Lovecraft Country , all the while screwing over the protagonist in such a way that it was formerly the Trope Namer for Through the Eyes of Madness.

Color Out of Space , given that it's an adaptation of a Lovecraft story, unsurprisingly has a bleak tone. The Color cannot be stopped from achieving its goals , the Gardners all go mad and die horribly , Ward is left traumatized by his experiences , there are countless other creatures just as terrible out in the vastness of space and beyond , and the Color's passage may have tainted the water supply for most of the Eastern Seaboard. Event Horizon , in which "Hell" is the easiest way for the characters to describe hyperspace , but some elements suggest it to be far, far worse.

Warhammer 40, fans like to joke that the film is a prequel. The Final Destination series has its protagonists cheating Death and trying to survive the consequences. Death is never presented as a defeatable force, and is unimaginably cruel about how it goes about balancing the books. And no matter what the characters do, Death will always claim them, even if it has to break the laws of possibility and probability to do so. The Forgotten turns out to be one. Telly and Ash's children were kidnapped by Eldritch Abominations and put through all that hell because they were experimenting. The Abominations have the ability to snatch people right out of the air and instantly make any person close to you forget who you are.

They have human agents that go along with them because they can't stop them. There's a happy ending, but only because the Abominations said the experiment failed. From Beyond. When an overambitious scientist builds a machine that connects our world with the Outer Darkness - and tests it on himself - you know nothing good is going to happen. While Italian director Lucio Fulci 's horror movies are usually more remembered for their bizarre dream-logic and ultraviolent deaths, at least two The Beyond and City of the Living Dead can be considered to be Cosmic Horror Stories, as both are deeply nihilistic, concern themselves with incomprehensibly malevolent supernatural forces, and end very badly for pretty much everybody.

The Ju On series and its American remake series, The Grudge are actually quite young in regards to the time scale of the horror since the curse only started in the past 10 years or so before the events of the films, but for all respects they have the characteristics of a Cosmic Horror Story. The curse itself was technically a jealousy-turned-murder-turned-revenge story gone wrong, but it seems that the fulfillers of the curse have strayed from this path to include everyone , even and especially the innocent ones, as their targets.

Once you do as little as taking a step inside the vicinity of the house or being associated with someone already cursed, it doesn't matter if you're in the cursed house, in your own residence, in your school, in the hospital, in the countryside, or even in another part of the world the second and third American films take place in Chicago or if you think that you're safe for a second, a minute, an hour, a day, a week, a year, or even 10 years the third Japanese film's third act is set a decade after the others , it will always claim you. It's best exemplified in the third Japanese film.

The whole of Tokyo is deserted, apparently having each and every one of its inhabitants claimed by the curse. Tobe Hooper 's Lifeforce ends up being this. It starts with astronauts finding an Eldritch Starship trailing Halley's comet, filled with dead, dessicated bat-things, and three strangely human-looking and attractive survivors; it all goes downhill from there. By the end nearly all the hero characters are dead or servants of the ship. Then the ship, after its snack read: pretty much all of London's population, if not more , goes off on its merry way to devour other planets.

The one survivor who knows anything about what actually happened probably won't be believed, so there will be little to no preparation for the thing's inevitable return. One possible interpretation of The Lighthouse is that the film is about two New England lighthouse keepers who are cursed by the sea gods for violating maritime tradition Over the course of the series, he likes and trusts them less and less. In the Dr. Kowalski is second-in-command and the tallest of the penguins, forming plans for the group and usually taking notes for Skipper.

When Skipper is absent, he takes charge and his rank is First lieutenant. He has blue eyes and tends to over-analyze situations. Often formulating plans for the group, Kowalski is a loyal supporter of his leader, Skipper. Kowalski had escaped the zoo with the other penguins but was promptly captured and put into a crate for transfer with his comrades. The crates were all placed on a ship bound for Africa, where all the creatures from the zoo would be kept in a wildlife preserve. While in the crate, Kowalski confessed that he could not read he said the words on the side of the box were an "older code", in slight reference to Return of the Jedi and asked another transferee, a chimpanzee named Phil, to read the words on the crate.

As soon as this was done, the four penguins headed to the ship's bridge, knocked out the crew and captain, bound them up, and Kowalski plotted the ship's course to Antarctica. He is the technician of the group and always has his notepad and, every now an then, an abacus. While being able to formulate plans and invent things such as a rocket ship out of a trashcan and fireworks, a futuristic rotary saw blade made of energy and multiple random objects, or an intelligence manipulator from just a cardboard box and a magnet and a vacuum; in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted , an invention of his called a "nucular" reactor sic is used.

At the end of "Needle Point", it is revealed that he has a fear of zoological oral checks. He seems to also spout nearly or completely nonsensical words, such as, "The moo cow may have a chocolate marshmallow", or "I'll be a bicycle cream cone", whenever either hit incredibly hard as he did when body checked by a giant rat during a hockey game or when shocked severely as by Officer X's stun gun. He screamed " Galileo Galilei " when he got his injection during "Needle Point". He also loves candy. In the series he is shown to be intelligent but it is not as apparent in the films, which reveal that he does not know how to read English e. He does most of his calculations on an abacus, although he was briefly in possession of a calculator that was destroyed.

He is in love with a dolphin called Doris and recorded a poem for her on DVD which highlighted her apparent non-interest in him in the "Hot Ice" episode. She was first mentioned in "Gone in a Flash" with a photo being shown. It has been noted that his inventions have a habit of horribly backfiring regardless of his best intentions or their successes. As a result of his inventions, he comes off as unhinged, especially when he becomes overly defensive about what he does. Outright called a mad scientist by Skipper, Kowalski often creates things in order to "show them" and has, on few occasions, hidden his devices. In "I Know Why The Caged Bird Goes Insane", he becomes increasingly derailed as the episode goes on after being temporarily bound to a wheelchair, mostly because the nursery he was being held in was right next door to the Science Expo, and he makes a few attempts to break out.

Kowalski can play a banjo and sing as seen in the episode "Concrete Jungle Survival". Rico, third-in-command of the penguins, does not really talk very much, usually communicating in babbles and mumbles. He is similar in physical features to the other penguins in the movies, but he has a tuft of feathers shaped like a mohawk and a scar of unknown origin on his left cheek in the television series, which makes him easier to distinguish, particularly from Skipper. Rico is the greediest and fattest of the penguins - he will eat almost anything, and thinks constantly of food. Skipper describes him as "clearly a world-class psychopath". Rico appears to be not merely particularly psychotic, but to some degree mentally deficient.

In "Friend in a Box" Kowalski points a mind-reading device at him which, despite seeming to function perfectly for the other three penguins, picks up only the word 'Fish' being thought by Rico. According to Skipper, it was a mystery how Rico passed the psych test. On the other hand, in "Cat's Cradle" Skipper tells Rico to demonstrate shutting off all unnecessary brain functions to conserve oxygen, and Rico seems to 'deactivate' by deflating his entire body.

In the first and second film, what little speech Rico used suggested that his native language is Japanese , and his sushi -preparation skills added to this idea. However, in the TV series, he communicated with excitable garbled grunts, but could still manage short sentences in English, and his language further improved by the second season. He's the team's weapons expert and his main function is to regurgitate any necessary tools that Skipper may need for a mission. His stomach operates as a hammer space , containing items as large or larger than himself, or that weigh much more than common sense would allow, with no ill effect on himself. He can swallow and regurgitate almost anything from paperclips and explosives, all the way to a running chainsaw and ground-to-air missile.

As the show went on, characters could actually reach inside him and pull things out. His stomach even contains a spiral staircase and elevator, and he can swallow other characters and regurgitate them safely, as he has swallowed both Mort and Kowalski. He's very fond of explosives, and his answer to problems would always be "Kaboom! Rico has little tolerance for "mushy" stuff, and often becomes nauseous when Private gets overly emotional and "lovey-dovey" about something. On the other hand he seems to be the second most emotional penguin next to Private and is deeply in love with a plastic doll called Ms. Another characteristic of Rico is that he might be incredibly superstitious, as, after receiving a rather dismal sounding fortune in a fortune cookie, Rico was a victim of pranks by King Julien who was trying to prove it was right.

Even after revealing that Julien was behind the accidents, Rico still needed to have him "take away the curse. In the episode "Herring Impaired", Rico shows that he can be responsible when his friends need help, and because the other penguins had "Pisces Dementia", Rico had to keep watch over his friends to make sure they don't have another fish for 24 hours. During the episode, Maurice asked that "Since when did we get four Ricos? Private is the youngest and shortest of the penguins. He has light blue eyes and speaks with a British accent though the other penguins think his accent is fake. In a way, he's much more childish, enjoying "Lunacorns" pony dolls based on a show that teaches good morals and friendship and often suggesting much nicer plans such as asking for something instead of breaking into a habitat or simply telling the truth to others.

He is often called inexperienced by the others. He has an addiction to Peanut Butter Winkies, first displayed in "Skorka" and further elaborated on in later episodes. He was overprotective of the egg in the episode "Paternal Egg-Stinct", though given how his team mates were treating it Skipper put it through a dangerous obstacle course, Kowalski tried shock treatments to increase its intelligence, and Rico was flying it with a hang glider , this was rational.

Private is very good at deciphering code, communications and peace treaties, and in some degrees, common sense. Private has been known to give life lessons in "Mort Unbound" he tells Mort, "There is a natural order of things" and in "Two Feet High and Rising" he tells Mort that Julien's feet "are just feet; not love". Private is emotionally sensitive, and is often portrayed as more observant or down to earth than the others noticing when Skipper's ankle tag had not been taken off, indicating that he did not get a shot or suggesting that Maurice had stumbled back because of being blinded by a camera flash, which Skipper quickly labeled as preposterous though he nevertheless told Kowalski to run a scenario as well as having fighting skills on a par with or only slightly below those of Rico and Skipper in one episode he is able to block rapid strikes from Skipper and disarm him with his feet while spinning on his head, all while blindfolded.

On the wall of the Penguin's HQ is a stuffed fish with a sign "Private's First Prize"; hiding behind it as well as a bunch of electronic precautions is his most prized possession: a butterscotch lollipop. Like Kowalski, he loves candy, but eating too much of it causes him to hallucinate. He has an abnormal fear of badgers and cockroaches, as shown in the "Badger Pride" and "Stop Bugging Me" episodes respectively. When Private is the last available penguin to fix a situation such as when it's revealed that the penguins had spied on the rest of the zoo occupants or during 'Untouchable' , he is able to rise to the occasion and execute a solution that benefits everyone.

At first, Skipper abused the hyper-cute, using it on everyone around them, so Private swore to never use it again after the misuse of the hyper-cute caused chaos around the zoo and nearly got them sent away. Despite his vow, the hyper-cute made appearances in other episodes. This ability was attempted in one episode when Private was molting, but instead of knocking an observer out with adorability, it frightened and panicked anybody seeing him use the ability.

In the "Concrete Jungle Survival" episode, Private received the rank of Private First Class after successfully passing a test in the city. He had been just a Private beforehand. In the Christmas special "Merry Madagascar" Private finds himself falling in love with Cupid, one of Santa's reindeer. The relationship is short-lived, as Cupid must return and work with Santa. Private reminded her that they would "Always have Madagascar! Private is the only penguin with known relatives, he has an uncle named Nigel though they may not be related , and in "Operation Penguin," he mentions his father is named Sam Fishy, though Sam Fishy has yet to be shown onscreen.

However, in Penguins of Madagascar , he appeared to have been abandoned as an egg, leading to the possibility that he is an orphan. As a self-proclaimed, Indian-accented lord of the lemurs, Julien ruled over a great colony of lemurs in Madagascar using mostly his charisma and delegating , i. Nevertheless, he shows more intelligence and calmness compared to the other lemurs aside from Maurice , which is shown when the very word " Fossa " drives all of them, except himself and Maurice, into a state of panic. He had parties for his subjects on Madagascar with much frequency, the likes of which were interrupted constantly by the fossa, which trespassed onto the lemur territory, devouring all that they could catch.

He saves his subjects from the Fossa and got bitten on the rear by the Fossa and he survived. When he learns that his nephew is still alive and is still king, his devious uncle tries to get rid of him and reclaim the throne. In the end, Julien discovered his uncle's plot, glad that Clover chose him over his uncle, and gives his uncle a second chance, by putting him in the Fossa disguise, that is being cuddled by a Fossa girl, much to his uncle's dismay. The day Alex and his friends came to Madagascar, King Julien and his subjects were enjoying one of their parties when it was invaded by the fossa.

When the fossa were scared off by Alex, Julien and his people were hiding in the trees and saw this scene, thinking Alex and his friends were giants from some faraway land, with Julien coming forward and presenting himself as the king of the lemurs — once he had ascertained they were not dangerous by tempting them with Mort. When asked where the people were, Julien pointed to a skeleton of a man caught in a parachute hanging from a tree. Later that night, Julien had a meeting of the lemurs and other creatures of the jungle in the plane. Julien insisted that if they could make friends with Alex and his friends, the fossa would be scared away for good. Maurice was skeptical about this plan, but Julien insisted that, being king, his ideas were the best. Julien's plan failed when Alex started attacking the lemurs and his friends.

Although Alex then turned back to normal and the foossa were scared away with only the actions of the four main characters and the penguins, Julien took the credits for its success. However, when it went wrong, he did not foist the idea back onto Maurice. When Alex and his friends were ready to go back to New York, Julien gave them his crown; he had already made himself a bigger, better one using a leaf-tailed gecko named Stevie.

He is in the first class, ordering constant refreshments, and amusing himself with old plane crash films. As the plane crashes down to Africa after running out of fuel and momentum, Julien takes utter pleasure in the feeling of weightlessness caused by the high-speed descent. By being in first class, he escapes the crash with a parachute but loses his crown. Upon arriving in Africa, Julien at first believes they are in New York and makes himself a new crown. He manages to gain some power while in Africa, although very few characters actually pay attention to him, getting to ride a flock of flamingos with Maurice, then moving on to riding ostriches and finally an elephant. Later, when the reserve's watering hole dries up, Julien suggests to the animals that they make a sacrifice to "his good friends, the water gods" at the volcano to replenish the water.

To convince the masses, King Julien enacts his casual conversation with the Water Gods. Later, Julien persuades Melman to volunteer for the sacrifice, who believed he was going to die soon anyway. But when Melman realized he was going to live, he gave up on being a sacrifice, leaving Julien disappointed at his plan's failure. Mort arrives soon after, followed by a persistent shark that had been attempting to eat him. This shark then falls into the volcano, thus completing the sacrifice, and as Julien comes out of the volcano, he sees the water coming back to the reserve due, in fact, to a dam constructed by Nana being destroyed by Alex and Zuba , and is convinced of his plan's success.

From this King Julien concludes that the Water Gods like seafood more. Julien appears in The Penguins of Madagascar regularly, often noisily and unintentionally annoying Skipper and pretty much everyone. He is the self-proclaimed "King of the Zoo" no doubt due to his former king status on Madagascar. Only Mort and Maurice truly believe and respect him as their king, the rest just show up to his "proclamation of royal decrees. Blowhole's Revenge ". Julien hates having anyone touch his feet, such as passing a royal decree that anyone who touches his feet would be banished from his kingdom the zoo. When the sewer rats went to the zoo and tricked the Penguins out of their home, Julien decided to play for the Penguins in a game of Hockey to try and win their home back.

They were losing until one of the rats touched his feet, after that he lost it and beat all of them on his own. In the episode "Crown Fools", Julien panics when he loses his crown and obsessively longs for it until it is revealed that he had a spare crown all along prompting Marlene, who was trying to make him new crowns all day, to chase him with a crowbar. Despite his desire for everyone to listen and do what he wants, he dislikes and ignores Mort, his most loyal follower, who treats him like a god.

Mort responds to everything Julien tells him to do as "I like In the episode "Haunted Habitat" he mentioned that he had a dream that he was "The last mammal on Earth". Mort was just happy to be in the dream despite that he was "road kill" in it. A recurring gag in The Penguins of Madagascar series is that Julien believes in supernatural beings, which sometimes annoys the other animals. In the episode Misfortune Cookie , Rico gets a fortune cookie that reads "You will soon meet a fowl end. Julien exclaims "these stitions are super," and tries to get the penguins to believe in the supernatural.

King Julien actively plots to make a "foul end" fortune come true - by his own doing. It is also known that his believing in spirits can be used against him, seeing that Mason and Phil tricks Julien into believing that the "sky spirits" are angry with the Julien self-centrism, thing that change Julien's personality. But when Skipper notices that kind Julien is more annoying than the narcissist Julien, Skipper makes him come back to his original self. It is also shown that Julien gains a super-lemur level of strength if he gets mad.

Visible when in "Miracle on Ice", Julien spanked and humiliated the Rat King, after one of his henchmen touched Julien's feet; In Happy King Julien Day, Maurice claims that Julien violently used a cane to spank everyone who forgot his self-proclaimed holiday. Also, he saved the day by managing to get back to the circus. Maurice, birth name Bricky, is an overweight aye-aye , despite being an aye-aye he lacks the distinctive middle finger. Maurice is King Julien's advisor - although Julien seldom listens to him - and often shows skepticism of his ruler's mad plans.

He has a long squirrel-like bushy tail. He lived in a tribe of other lemurs and witnessed newcomers to their home: a quartet of zoo animals. Maurice was suspicious of Alex, a lion, thinking him to be potentially dangerous. Maurice expressed this concern during a meeting of the lemurs and jungle animals, but was ignored by Julien. The next day, Maurice took part in the festival honoring the newcomers. During the festival, his suspicions about Alex become confirmed as Alex starts to give into his natural predatory instincts, and shortly after explained the trouble with having a lion around. He knew that Alex would need to eat meat, and felt that Alex should leave and go to the carnivore side of the island.

Shortly after, Maurice witnessed Gloria, Melman, and Marty working with a group of penguins to fight off the fossa that were attacking the lemur tribe. Maurice had to admit that King Julien's plan had worked and that fossa would no longer be of any worry. Maurice saw the newcomers out when they decided to leave and was obligated to wave King Julien's arm for him, as the king was tired of waving it. In the sequel Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa , Maurice does not have a prominent role, basically agreeing to whatever King Julien says. In the series, he often acts like a strict big brother to Mort and knows him so well that in "The Penguin Stays in the Picture" he is shocked to find that Mort only ate half of his popsicle, prompting Skipper to go find him because he suspected Mort went missing, which was correct.

He is shown to have many hidden talents in several episodes such as painting and speaking chameleon in "The Hidden" and using a yo-yo in "Friend-in-a-Box. Despite being overweight, he was still able to hold his own when he got into a physical fight with Kowalski and Rico in "The Lost Treasure of the Golden Squirrel. Maurice returns with a much smaller role in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted, where he and the other two lemurs join the zoosters in catching up with the penguins and chimps.

After joining the circus, the trio of lemurs fall into a crate holding Sonya the bear. Julien falls in love with Sonya, weirding-out Maurice and Mort. The two don't show up again until the end of the movie where they gun Dubois with a tranquilizer dart. Though quite timid, Mort can also be shrill and vocal in confrontations. Despite this, Mort does not show any lasting unhappiness, and his expression changes within the same scene.

Mort has an obsession with Julien's feet ever since he used them to kick some fossa as seen in the first episode of All Hail King Julien. Mort also has very good money skills as in the episode "Gimme Gimme Gimme: The Game" where he cleverly becomes the richest lemur in Madagascar all the other lemurs became broke including Julien after getting all their money and possessions but gives it all back after Julien, defeated, says that he had won showing that he believed that it was all a game. In every episode, Mort was able to develop different personalities such as Smart Mort and his Evil Grammy which resulted in his personality disorder. During the events of "Exiled", it is revealed that Mort is an immortal transdimentional being and all of his alternate personalities are dimensional counterparts who he defeated and absorbed their life essence.

By the end of the season, he marries the mountain lemur Zora but later break up in Season 5. In The Penguins of Madagascar episode "Sting Operation" when the penguins turn into idiots, they had the same obsession for feet just like him, which Julien despises. In his anger, Julien once banished Mort from their habitat at the zoo, forcing Mort to seek a "cure" from the Penguins. Mort makes his first appearance in Madagascar , wherein he has a minor role. He lives among the other native lemurs under Julien. Julien uses him as a test to see if Alex and the others eat lemurs, and Mort quickly decides that he likes them, as he is later shown to have a tendency to like everything. Mort is last seen in the film with the other lemurs wishing the zoo animals farewell, and Julien uses him as a makeshift foot-rest.

In Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa , Mort plays a much larger role. He attempts to follow Julien and Maurice on the penguins' plane, but Julien goes to extremes to keep him out of the plane, declaring that Mort had "scissors and hand cream" he did in fact, have a pair of scissors, however he lacked any hand cream on the journey. After reaching a shore at Africa, Mort is pursued by a persistent shark, which follows him onto the African preserve. Mort still followed by the shark finds Julien at a volcano where Melman had just decided that he would not sacrifice himself to return the preserve's water. The shark accidentally falls into the volcano just as Alex and Zuba destroy the dam blocking the river, thus leading Julien to believe that his plan to give a sacrifice to bring back the water was successful.

At one point, stuffed "Mort" dolls became very popular, and out of jealousy Julien throws them into the skunk habitat. In the episode, King Julien also reveals that the only reason he allows Mort to stay with them is so he can express his dislike for Mort in front of him, and keep himself entertained. After being turned back into his regular self, Mort expresses that he is happy with who he is. Despite the fact that Mort is often treated poorly by King Julien, the other characters show concern for him as Maurice tries to if with limited success save Mort when he may be in danger to be King Julien's biggest concern, and Skipper, who refers to Mort as "sad-eyes", dived in the way of the mutant rat overlord to save Mort.

In the episode "Otter Woman", all the boys are attracted to Marlene because her fur turned white. Mort tries the same thing in the end of the episode, without success. Mort returned in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted. Things he does in it involve vomiting on Alex's birthday cake, helping Alex defeat Dubois early on in the film, being part of the flying Afro Circus with the other lemurs, and tranquilizing Dubois with knockout darts.

Mason and Phil are two sophisticated common chimpanzees at the Central Park Zoo, who prefer to drink cups of coffee and "read" the newspaper in the morning. Mason speaks with a stereotypical British accent ; Phil, by contrast, doesn't speak at all and communicates entirely through American Sign Language , though whether he is actually deaf is unknown. Both escape the zoo after Gloria breaks through its outer wall; Mason mentions Tom Wolfe giving a lecture, and they plan to attend to "throw poo at him. In Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa , the chimps call upon others of their kind living in Africa to help rebuild the wrecked plane that was supposed to fly them back to New York. In The Penguins of Madagascar , Mason and Phil are supporting characters in the series, and are shown to be annoyed by Julien's partying.

They attempt to rid him of his ways by tricking Julien into thinking a solar eclipse was a sign that the "sky spirits" disapproved of his behavior. Phil may be the most temperamental or "potty mouthed" of the two, as after being told there is no checkmate in checkers, he makes several signs which Mason responds with "You groom your mother with those hands?! An instance of this is when the zoo occupants were ordered to make a cake for King Julien, and Mason mistakes "booger" for "sugar". This does not mean that Phil is unable to communicate well, even though he is unable to truly speak, he was still able to win over the heart of Lulu, a female chimp visiting from the Hoboken Zoo in New Jersey for a weekend, While Lulu did appear in a later episode where the penguins ended up accidentally finding themselves in the Hoboken Zoo, it is unknown if she keeps in touch with Phil.

McGrath explained that originally their "first scene was just deciphering the code on the shipping label". They wanted gestures to be "really frenetic", and "she signed out, 'Tell the tiny pea-brained birds that the sign reads: Ship to They make a cameo appearance on a newspaper in Turbo. The animals of Circus Zaragoza are trained circus performers that Alex's group had met while on the run from Chantel DuBois. Among the animals of Circus Zaragoza are:. Vitaly is a muscular Siberian tiger with a Russian accent who leads a traveling circus in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted.

The tough Vitaly once jumped through flaming rings of fire to excite crowds, constantly pushing himself to the limit by jumping through smaller and smaller rings that seemed impossible for his size while lubricating himself with olive oil. But after losing his confidence and more than a few of his hairs on one fateful attempt which involved a flaming ring that would only fit on the smallest finger due to the olive oil being flammable , he also lost his passion and his act partially.

When Alex and his friends plead with the circus to let them escape on their train, Vitaly is the most resistant, only to be overruled by Gia. When the zoo animals purchase the circus, Vitaly remains the most hostile to their changes to the business, even as the rest of the crew becomes inspired. In London, Vitaly decides to give up and prepares to leave just before the circus' critical performance. Alex confronts Vitaly and reminds the tiger of his love of performing and while suggesting he uses hair conditioner as a safer lubricant before regaining his courage to jump through the tiny flaming hoop. As a result, Vitaly's stunt is performed perfectly to open the successful show.

With that, a profoundly heartened Vitaly becomes a fast friend of Alex. Even after the zoo animals are exposed and estranged from the circus, Vitaly is the first to support Gia's proposal to rescue their new friends from the zoo and plays a key role in that operation. Gia is a jaguar with an Italian accent who is part of the traveling circus in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted. She wears a blue woven floral necklace , has gold eyes and has heart-shaped palms. She is Alex's love interest who is always on the lookout to discover something new and gets her chance when she convinces a reluctant Alex to teach her the trapeze — "Circus Americano" style. Her only role in the circus before Alex, Marty, Melman and Gloria came around was doing normal cat tricks sitting, standing, rolling over but when Alex teaches her the trapeze, she performs with him and they move closer.

Later on, she and the other circus animals save Alex and the gang from Dubois. Stefano is a sea lion with an Italian accent and curly whiskers. He is part of the traveling circus in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted and is a happy, fun-loving Italian sea lion who always looks on the brighter side of things. A true entertainer at heart, he is up for any challenge to save the circus, even convincing Alex that the show must go on. Sonya is the traveling circus' most ferocious, yet playful Eurasian brown bear who appears in Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted. Her tricycle riding act is only topped by her ridiculous tutu.

But her biggest trick of all will be casting a spell on King Julien, who is instantly smitten with her. Strangely, she does not talk in English nor is as anthropomorphic like most of the other characters, but Julien can understand what she is saying when she growls the way she communicates instead. However, she might have human intelligence. While they are in Rome , she and Julien travel to Vatican City where they steal the Pope 's ring after Julien pretends to kiss it and uses it to buy her a Ducati motorbike after they fall down a set of stairs and destroy her tricycle, which she uses in her performance in London.

They are white Andalusian Mares with Spanish accents who like Marty and are part of the circus. All of their names start with "E" and end with "A". When Alex's group improved the Circus Zaragoza, the Andalusian Triplets bounced on the trampolines during their act while wearing butterfly wings on their outfits. They tend to fight and argue with each other and they hate being called cute and cuddly. Only the first three are credited. Their names are revealed in the DVD commentary as well as the fact that they are German. According to Tom McGrath, they are very nice and great to work with. They remain silent in the film due to the fact that their possible dialogue was cut from the film. He first appeared in " The Madagascar Penguins in a Christmas Caper " where he was depressed due to being alone on Christmas.

This caused Private to want to give him a present. When Skipper denied his request, Private snuck into the city to find Ted a gift only to be kidnapped by Nana. After getting Private back, the other penguins decided to invite Ted to their Christmas party where the polar bear had invited the rest of the Zoo as the animals present sing their rendition of "Jingle Bells. In the series, he mainly appears as a background zoo animal. He did play a small role in the episode "P. Zuba voiced by Bernie Mac in the film, Dan White in the video game is a lion who is Alex's father and the alpha lion of the pride in Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa. He was first seen as the Alpha Lion of a pride in the reserve where Alex was born. At first, he thinks that Alex has returned to take over, but his wife notices that they both have the same birthmark and realizes that Alex is their son.

Zuba is a proud father, but he is somewhat confused as to why his son is interested in dancing. After many events in the movie including Alex failing the rite of passage and shaming his family, Zuba finally accepts Alex. The film was dedicated to Mac's memory. Florrie, unlike Zuba, accepts Alex for what he is. She is not disturbed at all by the fact that Alex prefers to dance instead of fight. Due to this, she acts as the voice of reason and tries to encourage Zuba that it is better that Alex came back to them, dancer or not, as a king.

Florrie is never addressed by her name in the film and in the movie's end credits, she is credited as "Mom". It is presumably in the novelization that her name is revealed. Moto Moto voiced by will. In Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa , he courts and romantically pursues Gloria. She does not realize this at first, but later, Melman the Giraffe confesses his love and tells Moto Moto to treat her right. This causes Gloria to break up with Moto Moto, and his last appearance is when he's looking for water during a severe drought only to find a bunch of jewels, worthless for the animals.

The scene where the female hippos tell Gloria that Moto Moto likes her has become an internet meme. An unnamed female Okapi voiced by Taraji P. Henson appears in Madly Madagascar , whom Marty finds himself in love with. She is not interested until he uses a love potion on himself, causing her and all the other female animals to begin pampering him. She and the other animals lose interest in him after he jumps into a lake to hide from them due to becoming overwhelmed by the pampering , causing the potion to wash off.

North Wind is an Arctic elite undercover interspecies task force that is dedicated to helping animals that can't help themselves. They worked with the Penguins in order to thwart the plans of the villain Dave aka Dr. Octavius Brine. Among the members of North Wind are:. Classified voiced by Benedict Cumberbatch is a courageous yet slightly arrogant British wolf and the team leader of North Wind. Skipper calls him Classified, who states his name isn't really "Classified".

His name is classified as in "top secret" because he is the leader of the team. He is the North Wind's counterpart of Skipper. Short Fuse voiced by Ken Jeong is a Belgian harp seal. He is the North Wind's explosive and demolitions expert. He is the North Wind's counterpart of Rico. Kowalski has a crush on her. Coincidentally, she is the North Wind's counterpart of Kowalski. He seems to like penguins and he freaks out when other penguins are taken.

He is the North Wind's counterpart of Private loosely, as he's also able to fight well, but shows affection at a great level, like Private. Nana voiced by Elisa Gabrielli in the films, Marion Ross in the second video game is an elderly lady with a Yiddish accent and the archenemy of Alex the lion. Nana's personality changes over her appearances. Initially, she appears as a very aggressive old lady with incredible martial arts skills. In The Madagascar Penguins in a Christmas Caper , she is shown to be aggressive with anyone, no matter how courteous people are with her.

But in Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa , she appears to be kinder than before, even leading the New Yorkers when she notices that they are in panic, only being aggressive with wild animals; which she sees as no different from domestic animals. She is also shown to be a soft and grandmotherly figure to the New Yorkers. For example, when a man helps her find her handbag, she says, "Such a good boy. Nana can't survive without it. Nana seems to be incredibly resistant to injury, as she was able to have another fight with Alex right after being tugged out of the back of a speeding tour Jeep as well as being thrown through the windshield a second time by the penguins, who reversed over her in the jeep after noticing that she did not die.

Despite her martial arts skills, she is still portrayed as a "little old lady"; she has a waddling gait, wears dentures, and is knocked onto her back when firing a gun. In the first movie, Nana crosses paths with Alex in Grand Central Station , then brutally assaults him. Throughout the series, she refers to Alex as "the bad kitty. When the animals are surrounded by police, she somehow gets past and kicks Alex in "the batteries" or his groin.

She was quickly taken away by police. As shown in the sequel, she was not arrested, she was interviewed as a witness, and states what she thought of Alex: "He was a very bad kitty. Nana is featured in The Madagascar Penguins in a Christmas Caper , where she proves that there are times when she is shown to be not only aggressive with animals, but with also people, like when she destroys random merchandise at a kiosk while shopping for her dog, then demands to purchase Private in a very rude tone, when she refuses to pay the taxi driver her fare, when she tells her doorman to "buzz off" and then punches him in the face for no reason, and even when she does not hold the elevator for Skipper, Kowalski, and Rico.

The normally reserved scientists, unable to repress their excitement, let out a tremendous cheer and gathered around Fermi to shake his hand. You now have the chance to see whether you remember their definitions. Lucas, a super sniffer, to work. A canine trainer offered the pig to Union City, suggesting that its intelligence and unique skill will make Lucas a fighter against illegal narcotics. Jagusak has already taught his pound porker-detective how to find cocaine, hashish, and marijuana. While some law enforcement officials were at first, they quickly became believers when they saw the Sherlock Holmes of the sty locate underground drug scents that had eluded trained dogs.

Dorie was black, and the highest job to which he could then aspire in the U. Navy was that of messman. While Dorie was technically a member of a great fighting fleet, he was not expected to fight. Most Army and Navy officers inveighed against blacks as fighting men. Although blacks were nettled by such overt prejudice, Dorie Miller apparently accepted being relegated to the role of a messhall servant. Now, as he poured the coffee, Dorie was wondering why the airplanes above were making so much noise on a peaceful Sunday morning. Sample Sentences Use the new words in the proper blanks. Jumping up from his supine position, the powerfully built messman from Waco, Texas, headed for the deck.

Everywhere that Dorie looked he saw smoke and mammoth warships lying on their sides. Overhead, dozens of Japanese dive bombers controlled the skies without a U. The havoc was enormous. Definitions Match the new words with their meaning. He dragged his captain to safety and turned back to see that the machine-gunner had been killed. Dorie took the big gun and trained it on the incoming bombers. Within the space of ten minutes he was credited with destroying four bombers while dodging the bullets of their fighter escorts. The enemy scurried away, having struck the incisive blow that precipitated U.

Amidst the dead bodies and the ruined fleet were the heroes such as Dorie Miller. The Navy had attempted to stereotype him, but Dorie changed all that. Although he could have accepted a sinecure at a U. Philadelphia lawyer v. Ellen Kaner, a Dallas chemist. They admitted that the phrase in question, one of selected by computer chips, was a mistake. Not only will we remove it immediately but will swap with anyone who bought the offending doll.

Danny had confessed to complicity in the killing of his brother-in-law after the police had refused to allow him to see his lawyer. Despite the fact that Danny later recanted his confession, he was found culpable and jailed. Two of the words are very close in meaning. He proposed that lawyers be entitled to sit in when the police question a suspect but the Illinois courts rejected that on the grounds that it would effectively preclude all questioning by legal authorities. Legal aid, said the judges, must be instantly available to a suspect.

Each case was heard on its merits, and in numerous instances people who had been convicted of serious offenses were freed because of the new standards established in the Escobedo case. After getting out, Danny was not a paragon of virtue, according to the police. He led a nomadic existence, drifting from job to job, and was arrested frequently. With asperity, and a few choice epithets, Danny referred to police harassment. In a sense, everyone who listens to you is wire-tapping your conversation. By the end of this week you will have gained a greater familiarity with words and 60 idioms— enough to educate a conscientious wire-tapper.

Numbers 1 and 13 are close in meaning. Clues 2nd Day 1st Day 4th Day 1st Day 4th Day Questionable Advertisements The Nostalgia Factory, a Boston art gallery, staged an exhibit of advertisements that had outraged various segments of the community. For example, one of the fast food chains ran a TV commercial that showed unattractive school cafeteria workers in hairnets, making that experience less tasty than a visit to Roy Rogers. Who is asking companies to contracts with those agencies that are in creating racist types of commercial messages? The honeybee is a gregarious insect whose habitat is a colony that he shares with as many as 80, bees. Although the individual bees live for only a few days, their colony can be operative for several years. A cursory study of the activities of these insects reveals an orderliness and a social structure that is truly amazing.

The queen lays the eggs that hatch into thousands of female workers; some queens live as long as five years and lay up to one million eggs. The frugal worker builds and maintains the nest, collects and stores the honey, and is the antithesis of the lazy drone, or male honeybee, who does not work and has no sting. After the workers have constructed a hive of waterproof honeycomb made from beeswax , the queen begins to lay eggs in the first cells. While some workers embellish the hive, others fly out in search of nectar and pollen. With their long tongues they gather nectar and use their hind legs to carry the pollen from the flowers. They fly directly back to the hive and then dance around the honeycomb, their movements indicating the direction of the flowers.

Meanwhile, other workers have been cleaning cells, caring for the young, and guarding the precious cache of nectar. Another special coterie is entrusted with heating or cooling the hive. Dedicated to the welfare of the queen and the entire insect community, all of these workers display a complete absence of cupidity. Workers choose a few larvae to be queens, feeding them royal jelly, a substance rich in proteins and vitamins. While the queen is changing from a larva to a pupa, a team of workers builds a special cell for her. Soon the young queen hatches, eats the prepared honey, and grows strong.

After she kills any rivals who have the temerity to challenge her, an amorous note is injected. She flies from the hive and mates with one or more drones on her first flight. Then the process of egg laying begins. When her progeny saturate the hive, scouts are dispatched to find a new location, and the bees swarm after their leader to begin the amazing cycle again. Sample Sentences Use the new words in the following sentences; remember, past tenses may be required. The filth of the lucre did not disturb him at all. One Friday evening, Roy continued, a brash had the to try to steal the ill- gotten gains.

Having bought the combination from a relative who had installed Mr. His made him go back for that small change, and in that moment, Mr. In short, the idea was to plant fallacious documents concerning the Allied invasion of Europe upon a dead officer, have his body recovered by agents who would transmit the false information to Germany, and then observe the effects of the plan.

First, they conducted an assiduous search for a body that looked as though it had recently been killed in an airplane disaster. Then, a detailed history of the man had to be invented that would be so impeccable that the enemy would accept its authenticity. This meant documents, love letters, personal effects, keys, photographs, etc. Each step was fraught with difficulty, but the schemers were unbelievably resourceful. Shortly thereafter, the Spanish Embassy notified the British that the body had been recovered.

The secret information was transmitted to the German High Command, through a labyrinth of underground networks, to be evaluated. Subsequently, when the actual attack took place, Allied casualties were minimized. After the war, Commander Montagu received a medal from the king of England. At the presentation ceremony, the king politely inquired where the young officer had earned his citation.

But Major Martin, undoubtedly, would have known all the words below—do you? Note the similarity between numbers 13 and The U. Benson had claimed that whatever money he collects on the street can be compared to the funds raised by legitimate charities, and, therefore, he is entitled to a federal deduction. Government officials regard his analogy as and disagree.

She countered that, if Jack merely sat on a street corner with his hand out, the government had a good case. With a mixture of innate movements and learned ones, some laboratory chimps now have an extensive vocabulary. It is irrelevant that Washoe cannot actually talk. Several years ago, two married researchers embarked on an interesting project: they reared and trained a chimp in almost the same manner as they would have raised a child.

The animal did beautifully, convincing the couple of the inherent ability of the chimpanzee. They can press buttons, manipulate levers, avoid shocks, etc. When food is placed out of reach, the animals can prepare a ladder of boxes to reach it. With the aid of his long, powerful hands he can swing rapidly from tree to tree and cover considerable ground in his peregrinations. Chimps are loyal in their conjugal relationships, taking only one mate at a time. The warmth of Mr. However, higher animals who apply themselves can master all of them. Note the similarity between numbers 8 and 9. Labor Department, court officials, legislators, religious groups, and community agencies.

Unscrupulous contractors scour the countryside in search of homeless, , and unemployed men and women, offering to put them to work at good jobs picking fruits and vegetables. Labor Department investigates the of complaints of abused workers, issues fines, and revokes the licenses of contractors. But many such shady employers pay the fines which they to be operating expenses and continue to run company stores that cheat the workers, subjugate them with drugs and alcohol, them with advances on their paltry wages at high interest, and use violence against those whom they regard as troublemakers. His story is repeated by hundreds of others who have been treated shabbily by corrupt contractors. Until sufficient funds are allocated by state and federal agencies, and until there is the proper public response, these abuses will continue.

Following a bloodless coup, his nephew, Prince Schubert, took command of the poor nation. Sample Sentences Based upon your understanding of the new words, as discovered from the context, use the correct words in the following sentences. Those who had been jailed on false charges were exonerated by special tribunals. In addition, Prince Schubert was able to get the United States to underwrite a substantial loan that would enable him to start a program of public works. Even so, Ruritania was still in desperate trouble. Speaking on radio, the young reformer explained the reasons for higher taxes and food rationing; he was blunt when he stated the need for personal sacrifices. Use the new words in the following sentences yourself. The words that you are about to review, however, are all legitimate, acceptable dictionary words.

Despite the lack of hard evidence, some people continue to believe that the depths of our lakes and isolated mountain caves remain the dwelling places of fantasy figures. Now, a new star for the credulous has surfaced. Japanese television was asked to a search for Ogopogo, a long-necked reptilian creature said to inhabit Lake Okanagan in the mountains of south-central British Columbia. Ogopogo stories are in that area as people produce photos of rippling water and shadows resembling an enormous serpent with flippers, gliding slowly in large circles. Those who at what they regard as nonsense and pagan superstition are quite in belittling Ogopogo fans. Nevertheless, the legends, which have a life of their own, happily, have brought thousands of tourists and business to the Okanagan Valley.

Public health officials are quick to indict the insects as carriers of viruses that cause yellow fever and polio. Although past evidence has been somewhat nebulous, recent studies also show that an allergy to roaches may contribute significantly to asthma. Little wonder, therefore, that the pesky cockroach is under attack. Upon entering a cellar that is redolent with their aroma, you are not likely to forget the odor. No one can accuse the hungry and thirsty bugs of being abstemious.

Sample Sentences The words above fit into the blanks below. They have endured the vicissitudes of weather, natural disasters, war, and planned liquidation. The climate may be sultry or frigid but roaches persevere. As soon as the scientists devise a puissant chemical, some bugs succumb. Since the average female produces close to three hundred descendants, little hope is held out for a final solution to the roach problem.

Nevertheless, extermination campaigns continue unabated. Surprisingly, some sentimental souls become maudlin as they consider the persecution of the insects. Whether you are going to get excited over a roach, write a poem, take a College Board examination, or compose a letter to a loved one, it helps to have a rich vocabulary. Pesky k. Reviled b. Maudlin l. Puissant c.

Repose m. Nebulous d. Abstemious n. Trenchant e. Sultry o. Lugubrious f. Vicissitudes p. Disparate g. Redolent q. Indict h. Levity r. Extant i. Derogatory s. Omnivorous j. Unabated t. Edifice 1. Everest Clues 1st Day 4th Day 1st Day 2nd Day 1st Day Chlorine Compounds on Trial The chances are that the water supply where you live is disinfected by chlorine, one of the elements on the periodic table. Yet, complaints about chlorine continue , identifying it as a health and environmental risk.

Greenpeace, the environmental activist group, stands ready to chlorinated organic elements, alleging that they are toxic. The Federal Environmental Protection Agency is reexamining the health hazards that are prevalent when materials containing chlorine are processed at high temperatures. A scientist with the Environmental Defense Fund thinks that chlorinated chemicals should be phased out. Growing up in an atmosphere of opulence, the young prince was constantly shielded from the cruel realities of the world. An army of obsequious servants and tutors catered to his every desire, providing Siddhartha with instruction in riding, fencing, dancing, and painting—while lavishing fulsome praise upon him.

Which two words are almost synonymous? First he would cleanse himself by becoming an ascetic; then he would study Hindu wisdom in order to be prepared to help his suffering people. After six years of desultory wandering and attracting only a handful of disciples, Siddhartha came to a huge tree near the Indian city of Gaya. For seven weeks he sat beneath its branches, seeking an answer for his personal torment. Finally, it is said, he underwent a metamorphosis, becoming the Enlightened One—the Buddha. Only through the middle path could man achieve bona fide peace and salvation.

Buddha continued to preach until the age of eighty, spreading the philosophy that man has the power to shape his own destiny. Through good deeds and pure thoughts man may reach nirvana. Interestingly enough, the man who objected to traditional religious worship was to become idolized by millions throughout the world. This week is no exception. In a celebrated essay about Joan of Arc, Mark Twain wrote movingly of her brief moment in the spotlight—two short years in which she made an indelible mark on world history.

At age 16 she was illiterate, had never strayed from her sleepy little village, knew nothing of military combat, or courts of law. But at age 17, in a complete she was named Commander- in-Chief of the French army, vowing to restore her king to his throne. Joan defended herself brilliantly at a court trial, although she could neither read nor write. She was able to forecast future events with remarkable accuracy, correctly predicting her own martyrdom.

Mark Twain understood how geniuses such as Napoleon, Edison, and Wagner could develop but one could the facts for a lifetime without being able to explain how this humble peasant girl could display the qualities of a mature statesman, a learned jurist, and a military wizard. But the statistics are inexact because it is estimated that there are nine covert alcoholics for every one under treatment. She started drinking socially in high school or college. Although frequently incapacitated, she can fabricate a story skillfully and thus conceal her true physical condition.

She often attributes her alcoholism to connubial stress, boredom, or depression. A large percentage of the women give family histories of alcoholism. From time to time in the lessons that follow, your alertness will be tested as a previously learned word is reintroduced. Maslow arrived, but when she left it was in apple pie order. If women realized the harmful extent of the cumulative effect of alcohol, they might taper off in their public and recondite drinking.

Forty-three percent of the female alcoholics in a survey showed evidence of liver damage, and a quarter of the whole group had a high white-blood-cell count. Almost five percent of the patients died shortly after their release from the hospital. Sample Sentences If you can still see clearly after all the references to liquor, use the new words in the following sentences. Using alcohol in an attempt to palliate her problems.

Deluding herself about the extent of her drinking habits. Drinking at regular time periods, both day and night. Reliance upon alcohol as a prelude to a major social obligation. Using alcohol as a medication for real or chimerical illnesses. The head counselor ran our camp according to his own Draconian Code. Alcohol does not mix with gasoline! We have seen those slogans on many billboards. Draconian Code x. Consider the of the salon owners. But a spokesperson for the Department of Consumer Affairs said that beauty parlors will have to with the situation honestly, just as dry cleaners and used-car dealers did when they were apprised of the law. A city-proposed settlement, however, is to have those salons that are cited for violations of the law offer free haircuts to women for a period of three months before having to pay a stiff fine for repeated offenses.

As Mr. Sloane pursued his investigation of the phenomenon, he discovered that a Dr. Furthermore, those at the bottom of the alphabet tended to contract more ulcers, were more susceptible to heart attacks, and were more likely to be neurotic than those at the top of the alphabet. Weston is convinced that the pedagogue is the culprit. The inordinate amount of waiting that this group has to do causes them to become irascible and jittery. Sloane did not want to perpetuate the disorders that stemmed from the alphabetical arrangement. He called it a compensatory factor to neutralize the catastrophic effects of the traditional policy.

Soon, Mr. George Richmond, a Yale graduate who became a in the New York City school system, felt that elementary school youngsters could also be interested, even excited, about such issues. He experimented in his own classes with the Microsociety in which basic instruction takes place and is reinforced as pupils operate their own businesses, pass laws, live within the parameters of a constitution that they drafted, seek redress within their own judicial system, buy and sell real estate, and so on. In the afternoon, the students apply what they learned in activities that run the from keeping double entry books, doing financial audits, running a bank, and conducting court sessions to engaging in light manufacture that leads to retail and wholesale commerce.

Many primitive people believe that certain inanimate objects have a will of their own and possess some magical powers. These fetishes may be simple things like a particular feather of a bird or a unique pebble. The fetish might have derived its power, according to members of some tribes, from a god who lives within the object and has changed it into a thing of magic.

Fetishes need not only be natural objects, however. An artifact such as a sculpture or carving is also believed to possess supernatural powers. Sample Sentences Now use your new words in the following sentences. The explorers saw the golden statue and thought of how much money it would bring them. Definitions If you have studied the reading selection and the sample sentences, now try your hand at matching your new words with their definitions. Whereas the gods or supernatural powers merely inhabit an object that is a fetish and lend it magic, they will punish the imprudent native who violates their prohibition of an act or use of an object or word that has become taboo.

If a taboo has been broken, it becomes imperative for the offender to be punished. In many cases, however, the taint on the community may be removed after the priests have performed a special ceremony. Often, the violator of the taboo will be punished or die merely through his own fears of the terrible thing he has done. Sample Sentences Has the context in which your new words appear given you clues to their meaning? Try now to use them in these sample sentences. The health department refused to allow the soda to be sold.

Definitions Now is your chance to test your knowledge of your new words by matching them with their definitions. Since doctors tell us that excessive sun-tanning may be a cause of skin cancer, our strange yearning for sun-darkened skin has all the qualities of a fetish. Yet, how many were totally foreign several days ago? Keep up the good work now by using your new words in the following sentences. Definitions Match your new words with their definitions. Although the tradition continues today, few people are aware of its history.

A superstition originates in ignorance—when people are unsure of the causes of events. But it continues inviolable over the years because it usually represents our deepest fears. Sample Sentences Use these new words in the following sentences. This is the way language works. It is impossible to provide a one-word synonym or simple definition for a word that you will always be able to substitute for it. Therefore, in our weekly review we hope not only to check your learning, but also to teach you closely related meanings.

Match the best possible definition with the word you studied. These words must be studied independently if you want to master them. Use them in original sentences. Also, study the several different definitions a good dictionary provides for each of these problem words. Each time a country changes its name or its borders, there are some people who have their work cut out for them. They are the map makers—the cartographers.

Has there ever been an border? Looking through an atlas of just a few years back, we realize it is simply an of an ever-changing world. If there is one thing for map makers to do, it is to realize how it is for them to keep abreast of world events. The study of world history is replete with exciting events that have shaken the economic and political past. Geography is the physical rendering of these events. As history moves and changes our lives, it is up to the cartographer to take the lines of a map and shape the picture of this world in motion. A quick search of Google Earth brings our ever-changing planet to our screen. Perhaps the greatest volcanic eruption of modern times took place in when the island of Krakatoa in Indonesia blew up as the result of a volcanic explosion.

New islands were formed by the lava that poured out, and debris was scattered across the Indian Ocean for hundreds of miles. Volcanic material, dispersed seventeen miles into the atmosphere, created startlingly beautiful sunsets for years afterwards. Sample Sentences Relying on the contextual clues in the paragraph above, use the new words in the following sentences. After her house had burned to the ground, Mrs. Definitions Now take the final step in learning the new words. We are now faced with the deplorable prospect of new weapons that can cause destruction of life and property on a scale far beyond our imagination. No matter who takes the first step to initiate a conflict, the possibility exists that the conflagration will spread and envelop the world.

Much thought has been given to ways and means of preventing this catastrophe. Sample Sentences Use the new words in these sentences. Unfortunately, this congenial condition is fast disappearing. As our population increases, as industry consumes more water each year, the level of our underground water supply sinks measurably. There is no way to hoard water; there are many ways to conserve it.

During a particularly dry spell, New York City found its reservoirs going dry. Only then did the residents begin to heed the sage advice to limit the wasteful uses of water. Under the aegis of the Water Commissioner, citizens were encouraged to develop habits that would save water. Reports of a man in Chile or a woman in Turkey who has celebrated the th or th birthday occur regularly.

The natural question is, to what do these people owe their longevity? Frequently, the answer concerns the fact that the ancient one liked to imbibe regularly of some hard liquor. The photograph will show an apparently virile man or robust woman. Somehow, people who reach this advanced age seem to remain eternally sturdy. There are no signs that they have become senile. Smoking a pipe, or sewing on some garment, these rare specimens of hardy humanity are far from the doddering folk we expect to see. Remember, in our language there may be many synonyms and related meanings for each word. Knowing one synonym is good, but you will reap greater benefits from knowing several. Below is the matching review for this week.

These problem words can be mastered quickly if you write them down, look up their meanings, and practice using them. When we lose sight of the fact that countless numbers of creatures have become extinct because their environment could no longer sustain them, then we ignore the possibility that these same changes could many species that we take for granted. Our life-style, and that of the billions of others on this earth, puts waste into the air and water. We may this careless behavior. While there may still be enough clean water and air for us, the loss of animals and plants can only be a to a good life for the generations that follow. No one suggests that the solutions to our environmental problems are easy.

The nations and people of the world are in competition for the limited riches of this planet. It will take the sagest and most dedicated leaders, under whose educated and concerned citizens will live and work, to protect the environment. The most prevalent of these is the mass media. Bearing this responsibility, the mass media are often accused of being remiss in their duty to inform the public. There has been a great deal of hostile comment leveled against these opinion molders. Sample Sentences Based upon your understanding of the new words as discovered from the context, use them in the spaces provided.

In many hundreds of papers this falls below two percent. Why is there this aversion to foreign news? Newsmen claim that readers evince no interest in foreign affairs. In order to increase reader interest in foreign news, the vogue among editors is to sensationalize it to the point of distortion. Many other papers do only the most superficial kind of reporting in this area. The editor must include or jettison items as he sees fit.

It is inevitable that his ideas of what the reader want to know, or should know, are decisive. Because the newspaper owners do not want to endanger a lucrative business, there is the constant tussle between personal opinion and the desire not to offend too many readers or advertisers. It is intrinsic to the operation of all mass media that they avoid being extremist in their news coverage or editorials. A normal broadcast can cover only a small part of a news day.

The object is to transmit the gist of a story without supplying its background. Another difficulty of electronic news broadcasting is its transient nature; the viewers or listeners may miss an important story if their attention wanders. On the other hand, because radio and television present news in a more terse and exciting way, they are accepted as the most cogent presentation of news and are preferred and believed above newspapers by most people.

Sample Sentences A slow and thorough study is needed today. Before the game players spend as much time as possible taking their batting practice. During the game the batter concentrates on every pitch. At least that is the belief. The real Billy the Kid, William Bonney, is believed to have escaped and lived for many years in Texas. When Roberts died in , there was the question about his true identity. As a result, a computer was brought in to test whether there was anything other than a resemblance between the two men. A photo of the Kid and a photo of Roberts were compared on the computer.

In a report from the computer technician, the identity of Roberts was proved to be different from that of the real Billy the Kid. Thus, computer analysis allows us to the idea that Billy the Kid survived the famous gun duel. Every leading nation produced its share of great composers. There was a bewildering array of national schools and musical styles as the once obscure musician came into his own.

Music became a widespread and democratic art. The ardent music lover turned to Vienna as the music center at the beginning of the nineteenth century. However, Paris was not far behind, especially in the field of operatic music. The growth of German music can be said to have culminated with Ludwig van Beethoven. Sample Sentences Take command of the new words in these sentences. Definitions Match-up time for new words and definitions. He was a child prodigy who held an important musical post at the age of He was a successful concert pianist, but when his health began to fail he turned to composing.

Even though bereft of hearing at the age of 49, he did not falter in his work. Definitions Your personal test follows through matching. They heaped invective upon him for the intensely emotional quality and Germanic style of his writings. However, it was impossible to besmirch his talents for long, and he was soon one of the most popular composers in Europe. He produced voluminous varieties of compositions. Today, in retrospect, his originality is appreciated, and he is placed among the top romantic composers. Sample Sentences Complete the following sentences with the new words.

Definitions Study the paragraph and sample sentences for the meanings. He had an extremely lofty opinion of himself and his talents. He was not noted for his humility. Along with this quality, Brahms was known for his pungent sense of humor. While his closest friends could accept his biting jokes, others found him difficult to warm up to. Brahms was an inveterate stay-at-home. Cambridge University conferred an honorary degree upon him, but he was adamant about staying at home and did not go to receive the honor. Definitions Make the new words yours through the match-ups. Review the paragraph, sample sentence, definition, and then write your own sentence using the word.

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