The Role Of Epic Heroism In The Odyssey

Saturday, November 6, 2021 2:53:03 PM

The Role Of Epic Heroism In The Odyssey



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Odysseus: Key Points of Character

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Recruits and volunteers came mostly from the island. Their return was different, especially for the wounded and repatriated prisoners of war POW. As any other American soldiers, gravely wounded Puerto Rican would be evacuated from Korea and find their way to the continental United States. Their voyage was one that millions of Puerto Ricans after them would undertake. Once in New York, the returning soldiers would participate in parades in el Bronx and in Harlem. Their heroics were highlighted in articles next to news on the persecution of Puerto Ricans from Brooklyn to el Bronx. Moreover, they would return to the island aboard recently refurbished Eastern Airlines planes. This firm flew many soldiers, free of charge, to the island.

The actions of the Borinqueneers during the first half of the war elevated them to iconic status- living proof of what Puerto Ricans could do when given the opportunity, showing they were second to none, inferior to no one. Then, tragedy struck. The replacement of highly-trained, combat-hardened troops with poorly trained—yet enthusiastic—recruits who spoke little English; an acute dearth of bilingual sergeants the backbone of the American military ; and new Continental officers that did not speak Spanish some of whom openly showed their disdained for Puerto Rican soldiers led to tragic events during the battles of Outpost Kelly and Jackson Heights in the autumn of The back-to-back debacles were followed by a series of mass court martial in which eighty-seven enlisted men and one Puerto Rican officer received sentences ranging from six months to ten years, and total forfeiture of wages and dishonorable discharges for charges varying from willful disobedience of a superior officer to cowardice before the enemy.

In , the Secretary of the Army reviewed the cases and remitted the unexecuted portions of the sentences of all but four of the accused. The soldiers who had their sentences remitted were returned to duty. On March 4, , an Army spokesman announced that the Army had decided to integrate the 65th Infantry with Continental troops, and to redistribute to other units the excess Puerto Rican troops. The 65th would no longer be a Puerto Rican unit. In , the 65th Infantry returned to Puerto Rico and was reconstituted as an all-Puerto Rican formation. The island had its regiment back, but not for long. It was deactivated in Unlike its participation during the war, this event received scant publicity and soon the Borinqueneers and their epic ordeal faded into a distant and distorted memory—the forgotten heroes of a forgotten war.

But today, on June 13, el sesenta y cinco was awarded the highest accolade Congress can bestow. The Borinqueneers went from forgotten soldiers who had to face both the enemy and discrimination, to heroes earning praise from the leaders of Congress and the military. Barry Black, the Chaplain of the United States Senate asked God for forgiveness for segregating the Puerto Rican soldiers and for being slow in recognizing their sacrifice and heroism. Every speaker had honest and overdue praise for these men. It has always puzzled me that the efforts to recover the history of the Borinqueneers and to restore their record came mostly from members of the Puerto Rican diaspora. Today, I understood why.

Many wept. The faces of the members of Congress present made me think that they had never seen such a display of national pride. It did no matter where these soldiers were sent, what task they were asked to perform, they never stopped being Borinqueneers and carrying a bit of Puerto Rico everywhere they went. I interviewed several of them, and, while proud of their service and of the recognition they were receiving, they could not help but to be humble and simply stated that they were just doing their duty.

But they did more than that. During the Korean War they carried a heavy burden as the hopes for a new Puerto Rico and winning acceptance for the growing Diaspora rested largely on their performance in combat. And they did their best, many times against all odds, even if it was not always recognized. Their numbers are dwindling. Roughly a thousand of them remain. Eventually, all will be gone but not forgotten, they will not fade away. Check out these other pieces to learn more about Puerto Ricans in the Military:. With Honor and Dignity: Restoring the Borinqueneers' historical record. Skip to main content. Search form. Centro History Centro is a research institute that is dedicated to the study Jobs at Centro Learn about available jobs, work-study, internships Puerto Rico's Taino Movement.

Puerto Rico News. El viernes, 27 de marzo de , el Centro de Collections Highlights Collections. Justo A. The Antonia Pantoja. Antonia Pantoja with Presidential Medal of Art Program. Centro is devoted to promote Puerto Rican art by Library Highlights Library. New Acquisitions. Centro Library Here are some of the latest books Bibliographies of Puerto Rican Studies. Bibliography of Puerto Rican Studies Bibliography Historical Newspapers and Journals. Publications Highlights Publications. Journal Centro Store Frequently Asked Questions When can I expect to For many readers, the strangely unheroic quality of the poem is only redeemed by the romance between Jason and Medea in Book 3, [34] and even the history of scholarship on Apollonius has had its focus there.

Medea is generally agreed to be the most interesting and lifelike character in the poem yet even she may be considered unconvincing in some respects. Her role as a romantic heroine seems at odds with her role as a sorceress. These contradictory roles were embedded in the traditional accounts that Apollonius inherited. On the other hand, Apollonius emphasizes the technical aspect of her magical powers, such as her mastery of drugs, a touch of realism that may seem to downplay her role as a sorceress. Unconvincing characterization may also be explained as a comic effect.

Heracles can be seen as something of a buffoon. His homosexual or pederastic relationship with Hylas is covered only obliquely and even then in a humorous way, as if to set the stage for the more serious relationship between the hero and heroine. They appear comic precisely because these fairy-tale elements are in contrast to the Argonauts' unheroic stature, as people like you and me. The gods in particular are characterized by Alexandrian realism. Homer's gods also are more like people than divinities but Apollonius provides them with a liveliness, an orderliness and a degree of banality that evoke domesticity in Alexandrian high society.

Much of the poem's irony and charm in fact lies in the conflation of these different worlds. Characters have symbolic roles to fulfill. Though Heracles is abandoned at the end of Book 1, he continues to haunt the narrative as a background figure, glimpsed in the distance and reported as an active presence, thus symbolizing the way traditional epic offers the poem a literary background. As one scholar recently observed: "This is just the way in which old epic with its generic conventions and its ideology is present in the Argonautica : dimly visible Homer in the Odyssey also uses the device, through the singers Demodocus and Phemius.

In Argonautica , the role is performed by the doomed seers Mopsus and Idmon, and especially the singer Orpheus. Whereas the companions of Homer's Odysseus pass the Sirens in safety by stuffing their ears with wax, the Argonauts are saved from the Sirens by the music that Orpheus plays to drown them out. The contest symbolizes the updating of epic. The seers Idmon and Mopsus, able to interpret signs, might also be understood to represent the ideal audience, able to interpret symbols.

Other characters however can also fulfill this role, such as Peleus, who successfully interprets Jason's encounter with the Libyan nymphs, thus leading to the Argo being carried across the desert. By this means the audience is encouraged to interpret the poet's own complex meanings — 'heroes' like Peleus are people just like us and their powers of insight are ours too. Some of the episodic quality of Argonautica can be put down to its genre, as a voyage narrative. Homer's Odyssey also features some disunity, as a set of adventures, with surprising discoveries waiting around every headland.

Thus Longinus contrasted the Odyssey unfavourably with the Iliad : in the former, he thought the mythical element predominates over the action, whereas he thought the Iliad gains dramatic tension through the development of a single, great contest. Argonautica however goes beyond Homer's Odyssey in its fragmentation of the action. Apollonius seems to have rejected the Aristotelian concept of unity, since numerous aitia interrupt the story with 'flashbacks' to myths predating the Argonaut story, and with 'fast-forwards' to customs in the poet's own time. The narrator's choice of material is thus of immediate interest to the reader, since it interrupts the action, unlike the traditional method of Homer, where the poet keeps a low profile.

Some of the episodic quality comes also from the poet's literary eclecticism. For instance, the role of the Argo in the Greek settlement of northern Africa was a common topic of Greek literature. Pindar , a poetic model for Apollonius and Callimachus, composed three odes for the ruling elite of Cyrene, including Pythian 4 , where he mentions the clod of earth that Euphemus received from Triton and which became the island Thera, the mother city of Cyrene. The historian Herodotus mentioned the tripod that Triton received, a pledge of Libya's future colonization by descendants of the Argonauts Herodotus 4.

Both these accounts found their way into Argonautica. Paradoxically, this highly episodic poem, fragmented in time and with events unfolding in a changing landscape, can yet be thought to have more unity than any other epic. Its unity comes from its location within the milieu of Ptolemaic Alexandria. The Ptolemaic setting makes sense of many of the poet's enigmatic choices.

Thus for example the final cluster of aitia is not an arbitrary addition but neatly associates the story's end with the beginning of Greek settlement in Egypt. The island of Thera was the mother city of Cyrene and symbolized Greek settlement of Libya. Aegina was once home to the Argonauts Peleus and Telamon, exiled thence for murdering their brother, thus symbolizing the Greek diaspora. The island of Anaphe is where the Aitia of Callimachus begins with a tale of the Argonauts, and his final aition is in Alexandria, so that Argonautica' s progression from Iolcus to Anaphe becomes part of a cycle: "Taken together these two poems de facto complete the prophecy that begins in a mythic past. Any apparent weaknesses in characterization can also be explained in the Ptolemaic setting — the story isn't really about Jason or about any of the Argonauts, as individuals, but about their historic role in establishing a Greek destiny in Libya.

Argonautica' s original audience of ethnic Greeks would have glimpsed their own migrant history in the motley Greek crew of the Argo, and similarly Hellenized Egyptians would have glimpsed themselves in the Colchian diaspora depicted in Book 4. According to Herodotus, Colchis was colonized by Egyptians see details in Itinerary. In that case, the Colchian fleets that settle in and around Greece may be thought to prefigure the Greek colonization of Egypt. Apollonius conflates Greek and Egyptian mythology. Islands symbolized creation in the Egyptian scheme of things, being associated with the ground emerging from the Nile floods. Thera and Anaphe, as emergent islands, are recreations of the myth.

Egyptians considered Libya's western desert to be the land of the dead. The Sun, who traversed the sky in a boat during the day, returned at night in the same boat via the underworld, a cycle associated with cosmic life and death. The stranding of the Argonauts on the Libyan coast, their carrying of Argo across the desert and the deaths there of Mopsus and Canthus give a Greek perspective to this Egyptian symbolism, with the Golden Fleece figuring as a solar emblem. Thus the action of the Argonautica can seem highly organized, as an attempt to soften the boundaries between Alexandria's indigenous ethnic population and its immigrant Greeks, by means of a shared mythology and world-view.

Though critics have concentrated on Homeric echoes in Argonautica , direct borrowings from tragedy, such as Euripides ' Medea , can be found. The gods are relatively distant and inactive throughout much of the epic, following the Hellenistic trend to allegorize and rationalize religion. For a discussion of poetic style and technique in Argonautica see Apollonius of Rhodes Poetic style. The Argonauts are listed here in the order in which they are catalogued in lines 1— of Book 1. Here follows a list of places where the narrative states or implies that Argo came to shore. Time is here seen from the perspective of the poet — the time at which Apollonius wrote is governed by the present tense and by qualifiers like "now" and "to this day", the mythical action of the poem is governed by the past tense, whereas our own time is denoted 'modern'.

The main city, Aea, is said to be one of many cities that were founded in Europe and Asia by Egyptian forces. Modern scholars connect this account with one by Herodotus Histories 2. The city, country and people took their name from Hyllus , a son of Heracles and the water nymph Melite. The cave where Jason and Medea were married is now called Medea's Cave. Altars that Medea set up in a local temple of Apollo still receive annual sacrifices to the nymphs who attended her wedding, and to the Fates associated with births and marriages. As with the first Colchian fleet, the second dispersed rather than return home empty-handed.

They lived for a long time on the island among the Phaeacians, later migrating to the Ceraunian Mountains and Oricum. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the epic poem. For other uses, see Argonautica disambiguation. Greek epic poem dated to the 3rd century BC. Murcia, cited by A. The two articles are cited by R. Race, Apollonius Rhodius: Argonautica , maps section. Beye, in emphasising the internal life of the protagonist observes, "We have reached, in effect, the beginnings of the novel. Race's Apollonius Rhodius:Argonautica , lines 1.

Agamestor was a local hero — see for example Pausanias 5. Race, Apollonius Rhodius: Argonautica , note 71, page Ptolemaic Epic. The Golden Fleece: Imperial Dream. Hellenistic Poetry. Apollonius Rhodius. Grenfell and A. Hunt, in , of the 2nd century C. Harder e. Rengakos, Apollonius Rhodius as a Homeric Scholar , p. Harder, Aspects of the Structure of Callimachus' Aetia , f. Glei, Outlines of Apollonian Scholarship — , p. Zur Geschichtlichkeit der alexandrinischen Poesie cited by R. Asper, Apollonius on Poetry , p. Hunter, The Poetics of Narrative in the Argonautica, p. Stephens, Ptolemaic Epic , p. Race, Apollonius Rhodius: Argonautica , p.

Fantasy fiction. History Literature Magic Sources. Anime Films Television programs. Tolkien World Fantasy Convention. Outline Category. Jason and the Argonauts. Giasone La toison d'or Authority control. France data United States Czech Republic. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. Ancient Greece portal Myths portal. Father Aeson , mother Alcimede. As indicated by the page numbers, he becomes a more influential hero in the second half of the poem books 3 and 4.

He is often referred to only as 'Son of Aeson'. He encourages the crew with his music and he establishes musical rites for cults they establish along the way, as at Bear Mountain and Thynias Island. From Thessalian Larissa , son of Eilatus, he once fought for the Lapiths against the Centaurs and is now "heavy" with age but still warlike. He is left behind with Heracles at the river Cius end of Book I , and he is destined to establish a city there Cius , before dying in the land of the Chalybes. Son of Hermes , from Thessalian Alope , skilled in trickery; his mother was Antianeira, the daughter of Menetes.

Thessalian half-brother of the above two, father Hermes, mother was Eupolemeia, daughter of Myrmidon. He acts as a herald thanks to his "imperishable memory', serving for example as a messenger between the Argonauts and the women of Lemnos. Son of Caeneus , from Thessalian Gyrton , a brave man; his father was buried alive by the Centaurs, who were unable to kill him in battle. Apollo 's son, skilled in the augury of birds, from Thessalian Titaresia.

Son of Ctimenus, from Thessalian Ctimene near lake Xynias. From Locrian Opus , son of Actor. He is wounded by a feather when a bird swoops the Argo off the island of Ares, causing him to drop his oar. Son of Canethus, his grandfather is Abas , from Euboea. He dies in Libya, killed by a shepherd while trying to steal his sheep the shepherd, Caphaurus , is a grandson of Apollo. Son of the archer Eurytus , from Thessalian Oechalia. In battle, he kills one of the Doliones and later one of the Bebrycians, then shoots down a bird at Ares Island. Son of Aeacus , originally from Aegina , settled on Salamis. He angrily accuses Jason of treachery at the end of Book 1 but Glaucus reconciles them, and he nearly threatens the Colchian king but Jason prevents it with a conciliatory speech.

Brother of Telamon, from Phthia , he is father of the infant Achilles. One of Jason's counselors. He rallies the Argonauts with brave advice when Tiphys dies and later when they are daunted by lurid descriptions of Colchis, and he receives instructions from the goddess Hera via his wife Thetis. He is left behind when lured from the ship by the Sirens. Aphrodite saves him and settles him in Sicily. Another Athenian, his father is Alcoon, who sent him on the voyage though he had no other sons to care for him in old age. Son of Hagnias, from Thespian Siphae Boeotia , navigator skilled in reading the sea, weather and stars, sent on the voyage by Athena.

His skill, with Athena's assistance, gets the Argo through the clashing rocks. He dies of illness soon afterwards and he is buried beside Idmon. Son of Dionysus from Araethyraea, near the springs of Boeotian Asopus. Son of Bias and Pero , from Argos. Son of Zeus and Alcmene. Separated from the other Argonauts at the end of Book I, even before they reach Colchis. This is by the will of the gods, so he can complete the Twelve Labours that will secure his immortality 1. Son of Clytonaeus from Argos, descended from another Nauplius who was sired by Poseidon upon Danaus 's daughter Amymone. Son of Apollo, fostered by Abas in Argos, skilled in omens from birds and burnt offerings; joined the voyage though he knew it would be his death.

He is killed by a wild boar at a mouth of the Acheron. In battle, he kills one of the Doliones, and the bullying king of the Bebrycians in a boxing match, which wins the Argonauts friends among neighbouring people. Son of Aphareus , from Arene , he has miraculous powers of eyesight. He observes Heracles in the distance in the Libyan desert — too far away to be reached. A critic of Jason even before they leave Iolcus. In battle, he kills one of the Doliones and he slays the wild boar that killed Idmon. Son of Neleus from Pylos ; he could assume any form he chose when in battle. Son of Aleus , from Arcadian Tegea. Nephew of the previous two, sent on the voyage by his father Lycurgus, who stayed behind to look after the aged Aleus.

From Elis , a son of Helius. The Colchian king is his half-brother via the sun god, so Jason uses him there as an Argonaut ambassador. From Taenarus , sired by Poseidon on Europa ; he is the fastest of all runners. He manages the dove that signals to the Argonauts to charge the Clashing Rocks, and he urges them onwards with rallying calls. He accepts a clod of earth from Triton that is destined to become the island of Calliste Thera , whence Libya would be settled by his descendants.

Son of Oeneus , from Calydon Aetolia ;. Son of Hephaestus and foster son of Lernus , crippled in both feet like his father but strong and dauntless. Son of Naubolus , from Phocis ; he once hosted Jason when he went to Pytho to ask the oracle about the voyage. Son of the wind god Boreas by Oreithyia , from Thrace ; he has wings at his ankles and temples. Son of the wicked Thessalian king Pelias , Jason's taskmaster. Son of Arestor , he is Athena's helper in building the Argo; he is mentioned at the start of the crew list 19 , in the middle and at the end Not mentioned in the second half of the poem, where 'Argus' signifies the eldest son of Phrixus below. Home of Jason, its harbour Pagasae was starting point for the voyage.

Their first landfall, near the "tomb of Dolops" a son of Hermes. They were kept there by adverse winds for two days. The beach is named "Argo's Aphetae" Argo's Launching , commemorating their departure on the third day 1. The Lemian women once murdered all males on the island, except their king Thoas , who was cast adrift in a wooden chest. He came ashore at an island named after the nymph Oenoe but now and also in modern times it is called Sicinus after the son she bore Thoas 1. They arrived the same day they left Lemnos, on the advice of Orpheus, since there were secret rites here that could protect sailors. Apollonius piously refuses to describe the sacred rites of the Cabiri 1. Cyzicus Peninsula Bear Mountain. Next port of call after passing through the Hellespont at night.

Apollonius refers to the Hellespont as " Athamas ' daughter " 1. Jason's long stay at Cyzicus accounts for multiple aetia. One of the Argo' s anchor stones is at a temple of 'Athena, Jason's Helper' 1. The local Doliones still commemorate their countrymen who died in the accidental fight with the Argonauts 1. His bride's suicide caused the wood nymphs to shed tears that became the eponymous spring 'Cleite' 1. A musical rite was initiated by Orpheus and it is still associated with the cult 1. They arrived the same day they left Bear Mountain. Heracles took child-hostages so that their relatives would help him search for Hylas and he later settled them at Trachis.

Polyphemus founded a city now named after the river 1. The inhabitants of Cius to this day "ask after Hylas" and they still maintain close relations with Trachis 1. Their next stop brought them to the land of the Bebrycians , where Polydeuces killed the king in a boxing match. They arrived after a wave almost wiped them out near the Bosphorus. They rescued Phineus from the harpies and they were then detained here for some days by the Etesian winds. The sons of Boreas overtook the harpies far to the west at the Floating Islands but Iris turned them back, not permitting the harpies to be killed.

In a digression, the poet also explains the origin of the Etesian winds, associated with the myth of Aristaeus and some sacrificial rites still practised on the island of Ceos. Their landfall after passing the Clashing Rocks. They saw Apollo passing northwards to visit the Hyperboreans and they honoured him with a paean. The Clashing Rocks stopped moving once the Argonauts passed through and they are still fixed in their place. In a digression, the poet tells us how the paean sung here originated with the Corycian nymphs. Argo moored in the harbour here after a day and night sailing from Thynias.

Here Idmon was subsequently killed by a wild boar and Tiphys perished by illness. The king of the native Mariandynians, Lycus , received the Argonauts hospitably, happy in the death of the Bebrycian king at the hands of Polydeukes, and he said he would build a shrine on top of the headland, visible to sailors far away, in honour of Polydeukes and his brother. The tombs of Idmon and Tiphys are visible today. Later settlers from Boetia and Megara were instructed by Apollo to honour Idmon as their city guardian but today instead they honour Agamestor [nb 14]. The Argonauts come ashore here when Sthenelus son of Actor appeared to them on his tomb.

They offered him libations and set up an altar to Apollo the Ship Preserver. Orpheus dedicated his lyre to the god and the place is now called Lyra. In a digression, the poet tells the story of Sinope, the nymph settled here by Zeus. Approaching the island, they pass the Mossynoeci , and the poet tells us in a digression that these people are named after their wooden towers "mossynes". In a digression, the poet links the field of Ares in Colchis with the foundation of Thebes by Cadmus : Athena shared the dragon's teeth between Cadmus and Aeetes. They built a sanctuary to Hecate , still visible, where Medea practised sacrificial rites that the poet dares not reveal.

The northern end of a "three-cornered island" Danube Delta , which allowed the Argonauts to sail up the Ister or Danube behind their pursuers, who had entered at the southern end. Brygean Islands [nb 16]. Jason and Medea murdered her brother Apsyrtus on one of the Brygean Islands. His Colchian followers later settled around the Adriatic and their descendants still remain there, including the 'Apsyrtians' on the Brygean Islands. An island near the mouth of the Eridanus. Its exact location is unknown to modern scholars. Herodotus 3. The Argonauts hid out here while the leaderless Colchian fleet disbanded, following the death of Apsyrtus. A city on the Dalmatian coast. It is home of the Hylleans, who proved friendly to the Argonauts after the death of Apsyrtus.

In gratitude for their kindness, Jason endowed the Hylleans with a tripod, originally a gift to him from Apollo, which protects their country against invaders to this very day. They buried it for safe-keeping deep under the city of Hyllus, where it still lies hidden. A fabulous river, often identified with the Po. The Argo was driven back north into this river by a storm. The storm was sent by Hera to forestall a worse fate planned by Zeus as punishment for the murder of Apsyrtus. The Heliades , his sisters, mourn for him in the form of poplar trees, their tears the amber drops that are found in the river. However, Apollonius also mentions a local Celtic legend, according to which these are tears that Apollo shed for his dead son Asclepius. Hyeres Islands 'Stoechades' or 'Ligystian' Islands [nb 17].

After entering the Ligurian Sea via the Rhone, the Argo arrived safely at these islands thanks mainly to the prayers of Castor and Pollux. Altars and rites in honour of Castor and Pollux were established here forever, as they were not only guardians of this voyage but continue protectors of sailors to this day. Argo's next stop after the Stoechades. Here the Argonauts wiped their sweaty hands on pebbles on a beach and they played discus with large stones.

The pebbles are flesh-coloured today, the discus stones are still visible, as are other signs of the visit.

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