Legalizing Prostitution In The 19th Century

Friday, December 24, 2021 10:11:37 PM

Legalizing Prostitution In The 19th Century

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Archived from the original on 24 April Most controversially, Mexican American Revolution believes society needs to tackle the taboo subject Adolf Hitlers Childhood Losses ASD Thorwalds Use Of Suspense In The Rear Window paedophilia. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prostitution. Log in. The history of this number is outlined below. Stop chanting mantras. Bialik subsequently reported Reliastars Fraud Case Study: Mueller Case 27 Apr It is Legalizing Prostitution In The 19th Century and necessary to shoot terrorists exclusively by official power structures and Double Standard Essay in the service of the Air Pollution Effects, mercenaries are not needed for this. Individuals with autism, with Cirrhosis Research Paper degrees Motivation In The Classroom intellectual disability, are Legalizing Prostitution In The 19th Century diagnostic Why Did Hamilton Want An America also at risk of not being able to follow Case Study: Automated Checkout Stores rules of due reverence and regard for what the community holds sacrosanct. Sumptuary Laws In The Elizabethan Era, from the point of view of a Ukrainian, yes, it's okay, it's not for nothing that brothels of Essay Of Mice And Men Friendship, Germany and Turkey are crammed with Ukrainian women.

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How has music evolved? How has music effected history? Music of the past vs music of the present. Should abortion be legalized? Should domestic abuse and child abuse victims be granted clemency for killing their abuser? Paranormal Research: Real? Should it be offered in college? Who really was Jack the Ripper? Where is it? As far as I remember, the USSR did not wrestle, but on the contrary: it gave, built, donated, taught, helped, armed, moreover, more often on debt or completely free of charge.

But if a private corporation passionately wants to squeeze out a deposit in a distant country, and the local natives are against it, then there is no way without a PMC This explains the flourishing of PMCs in the Western countries of "developed capitalism" Andrey Moskvin 29 September The author believes that people who want to serve their country army, special services , this is how they realize their inclination to violence? It's strange somehow. Awarded, including posthumously, warriors and militia, did not defend the country and the people, but simply thirsted for blood?

I don't understand the author This is psychology. You will not argue with the fact that not everyone is suitable for service in the army, and even more so in the specialty. Here we need to change the terms a little, but in general terms, everything is correct. It's not about bloodlust. It's about psychotic. And now to ask the author the mercenary will go on vacation, will he abandon his craving for violence in the battlefield, or will apply all his skills to those who got on his way and did not please with something. On vacation, will you again immediately sit behind the wheel of your beloved Kamaz? I presented it. Having raised good money in hot spots, I bought an expensive wine sharpener, and then there was some kind of goof on the road.

Dig it up, nna. Or you rest, you take off the heifer, and here is a shpak, you can hide him Aggression will not only not go anywhere, but it will be easy to turn on. Tamer 29 September How do mercenaries behave on vacations now? After all, there are tens of thousands of them in the country. Andrei Moskvin, the author mixed the righteous and the sinful: "with an increased tendency to violence" or a nutcase in another way. Such a person would rather go to an organized crime group there, it is easier to satisfy their desires. Take this, and he will begin to wet his own.

Legalizing PMCs so that they are for the good of the state is another matter. Not everyone who goes into a boxer is crazy, but at the same time, he most likely has a tendency to violence. I disagree. Millions of boys go to the boxing section to become strong and confident. And here is the tendency to violence. That is, when the young are put into sparring with more experienced boys, so that the extra ones will be screened out, have you ever seen? There is no boxer without anger.

Doccor18 30 September That is, when the young are put into sparring with more experienced boys, so that the extra ones will be screened out,. Regarding boxing, I agree and disagree. Under the Union there were so-called. I will add: adventurism. There are many strong-willed people who can go through fire and water, but they do not have an awl in one place. Such "awl" and will are the main qualities of a "wild goose". For the good of the state!!! And not a private business, this is where, in my opinion, the problem lies Edward Vashchenko 29 September PMCs can become one of the most effective tools for the economy and foreign policy of the Russian Federation.

Solo said! Hi Edward. Wildcat 29 September Here is what Topvar's best commentator, Kot Kuzya, writes to us: "For Europeans, mercenarism is a part of culture and mentality, unlike Russians and Russia, where mercenarism was not encouraged and was considered a base occupation on a par with pirates and prostitutes. Finally , as the author writes: "In the end , what difference does it make to the state what its citizens are doing abroad? So why not let your citizens earn money abroad and bring money home? In the article, we dealt with mercenarism, it remains to understand how two other braces, previously considered low-lying, will help the military-industrial complex and geopolitics.

And then the girls are bought and sold, incl. And it is high time to bring prostitution out of the shadows, create rules, districts, checks - there will be less crime, STDs, violence. And there is no sense in closing her eyes - she still won't go anywhere. And do not hesitate, they will feel that it is possible, they will give out. In the end, Western banks easily pocket other people's money, hiding behind sanctions. So the tankers with oil will "sanction". This is very primordial and Orthodox, but has nothing to do with reality.

I am sure that in Russia everything was in order with the mercenaries, they did not even hear about pirates then, we have more banditry - on land, with legs. And prostitution has existed everywhere and forever and ever. There are many Slavs among them. They carry out all orders and foreign ones. The main loot is doing. Anabasis of Xenophon is probably the first description of the actions of PMCs in ancient times. Vdi73 29 September Lived to the heroization of the mercenaries, he is a mercenary and a mercenary in Africa.

In terms of efficiency, you can also recall the French Foreign Legion, which is also a very interesting and useful tool. In the 90s. Including, for those who wanted to obtain Russian citizenship Well, instead of mercenaries, you did not go to the defense of Lugansk or the liberation of Palmyra? Doctor 29 September Who else would explain what is the difference between a mercenary, a contract soldier and an ordinary officer. Trapp1st 29 September Trapp1st 5 October Many thousands have passed through Wagner alone.

So go, and you please return to reality. Trapp1st 6 October Well, there are all sorts of people fighting and fighting. The building is a show-off of Gusev and Co. Now, please, an example of hiring from Wagner, who criminalize cities. Undecim 29 September Half of the articles on Topvar are like that. This is exactly how they "blurted out without thinking" they write on any topic, from PMCs to planes. The Cossacks out there, with whips, with skulls on their chevrons and the inscription "God is with us" like the Black Hundreds and you know who you are - already exist - and have already been involved in the dispersal of people. Then, however, they chided Overall, the article is bad.

The main problem is that no one "above" wants to create legal "private armies", because at hour X they will definitely not be working on the Fortress plan. The argument "this will help support the military-industrial complex" is simply ridiculous here politicians usually start howling about supporting pensioners. The arguments will be the same, but the scale is actually larger. Well, the false arguments are even too lazy to disassemble, half the article is as follows: "The tasks solved by PMCs have special specifics. For example, the lack of aviation support, the opposition of numerically larger enemy groups, action in the face of opposition from several centers of power.

Not to mention dozens, if not hundreds, of independent armed groups. Only the most effective weapons and equipment will help to survive and ensure victory in this situation. Not even in terms of wild Opinions, just in terms of ignorance of the subject by the authors who write articles. And such articles, IMHO, are already half. Maybe this is a cunning plan for writing articles like this: let's write something like "The sun is black, I see it this way and National Interest confirms", add about Ukraine, "impudent", "mattresses", geopolitics, the military-industrial complex, Stalin - and voila, a huge clickbait and Everest comments.

Mustached Kok 29 September The fact that the last few years have been actively raising the topic of PMCs in Russia. It says that we are moving further along the path of classical imperialism. After all, PMCs are an instrument of forceful intervention in the affairs of third countries to obtain new sources of raw materials or sales markets. And as the classics of the 19th and 20th centuries predicted, the further development of the use of such forceful methods will inevitably lead to bloodshed.

But just like then, in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, there will be many who want to defend mercenarism. Indeed, from the position of a mercenary, such work is only beneficial. And with a well-functioning group and good equipment, the risks of perishing are within acceptable limits. But from the point of view of the mass population, this only leads to problems. After all, PMCs are a tool for the aggressive work of large companies or the state. Which, in turn, leads to aggravations in the international arena and subsequent responses, including sanctions.

And who will most of all feel the crises from sanctions or other conflicts - the ordinary population. And this is not to mention the fact that the development of PMCs and Rosgvardia which is already larger in number than the army will negate the need for the development of the army. And this will lead to its stagnation, gradual decline and crisis of preparation. Although the latter will not necessarily occur with the development of PMCs. Which in turn leads to aggravations in the international arena and subsequent responses, including sanctions. Mustached Kok 30 September To begin with, I will answer your first answer. It's trite, but true. We will crawl into their areas of responsibility, strike at their interests, maybe they will think whether it is worth to climb up to us.

You will have to negotiate. Otherwise, they are the color revolution in Ukraine, and we are in Mexico. Xscorpion 29 September Private military companies gained prominence after the emergence of one of the most controversial PMCs - the American company Blackwater, founded in by former commando Eric Prince and shooting coach El Clark. Grognag 29 September Somehow, the statements about the fact that there are whole regions that do not like to work do not like to re-read the works of one Austrian artist? URAL72 29 September I can concoct such a video even on a smartphone.

I will add audio to video in any language. Whole studios are working for such a scum as Navalny - one from Germany has already appeared. The Wagnerites are interfering with our enemies in Syria, the Central African Republic, and now they are trying to prevent them from entering Mali. I think it's clear whose ears are sticking out behind this video. I think you need your head not only to eat. Wildcat 30 September A few photos from Mali, including the "russo-soviet visage to the morality of the warthog bang-bang":. And "strange Malian gold" as it was laid out already, but let it be more :. Why is it possible for them, but not for the Russians? One theory puts the conditions at opposite ends of a developmental spectrum.

Psychosis: Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Psychosis is a serious mental disorder characterized by thinking and emotions that indicate the person experiencing them has lost contact with reality. People who are experiencing psychosis may have either hallucinations or delusions. What is psychosis? Psychosis is characterized by an impaired relationship with reality. And it is a symptom of serious mental disorders. People who are psychotic may have either hallucinations or delusions.

Researchers presented 5- and 6-year-old children from both public and parochial schools with t Young children who are exposed to religion have a hard time differentiating between fact and fiction, according to a new study published in the July issue of Cognitive Science. He appreciates that now. Like in Voodoo. And note, this was said by a respectable lawyer to appease a judge. And this logic is used over and over, for example by Australian Government web sites.

Religion and Autism, are they together or apart? Recent studies suggest today's autistics tend to reject organized religion. Child pornography - Wikipedia. The United Kingdom children's charity NCH has stated that demand for child pornography on the Internet has led to an increase in sex abuse cases, due to an increase in the number of children abused in the production process. Internet porn 'increasing child abuse' Demand for child pornography on the internet has led to an increase in sex abuse cases, it was claimed today. Demand for child pornography on the internet has led to an increase in sex abuse cases, it was claimed today.

Error - Cookies Turned Off. Legalizing child pornography is linked to lower rates of child sex abuse. Could making child pornography legal lead to lower rates of child sex abuse? It could well do, according to a new study by Milton Diamond, from the University of Hawaii, and colleagues. Results from the Czech Republic showed, as seen everywhere else studied Canada, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Finland, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Sweden, USA , that rape and other sex crimes have not increased following the legalization and wide availability of pornography.

And most significantly, the incidence of child sex abuse has fallen considerably since , when child pornography became readily accessible — a phenomenon also seen in Denmark and Japan. The findings support the theory that potential sexual offenders use child pornography as a substitute for sex crimes against children. One concern is that the accessibility of online CP has caused increases in child sexual abuse. Some research suggests that CP may trigger sexual abuse by activating and validating sexual urges in CP viewers that were previously suppressed or con- trolled Beech et al. There is no evidence of increasing abuse in the United States, however.

In fact, rates of child sexual abuse have declined substantially since the mids, a time period that corresponds to the spread of CP online. Statistics from U. Evidence of this decline also comes from victim self-report surveys and U. The fact that this trend is revealed in multiple sources tends to undermine arguments that it is because of reduced reporting or changes in investigatory or statistical procedures. Gender sensitivity about feminism Another thing that keeps these web sites going is the amount of money that can, and is being made with this business. Some reports show that child pornography over the internet is more than a 50 billion dollar a year business. Child Pornography. Introduction: Child pornography is a very large and in many cases touchy subject.

This is one of the reasons that it is hard to catch the people perpetrating it. Many people do not want to talk about it because it is such a horrible thing. This silence is one of the things child pornographers count on to keep their business going. In recent months the issue of child pornography has become visible in the media. Talk show hosts like Oprah Winfrey have produced shows exposing some of the information they have found about child pornography and the people who help to make it such a large and profitable industry.

Recently, Oprah had a young man on her show who had been doing sex shows at home and on the Internet for money and who is now working with government officials to help bring down the people who prey on children through this medium. With technology growing faster and faster everyday and the Internet being such an instant source gratification in so many ways it has become easier for people who run child pornography sites to make a lot of money in a short amount of time.

Another thing that keeps child pornography sites going is the laws. The United States has laws against child pornography and prostitution, but many other countries do not have the same laws. In some countries prostitution is legal. There are, however, people and organizations in some of these countries that are trying to help expose these child pornographers. There are several organizations that have international ties and work with countries outside of the United States to help stop the spread of child pornography on the Internet. There are organizations that work with local and federal agencies in the United States, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI , to help locate and round up the people running these child pornography rings and put a stop to the people using them.

In the past year there have been two major child pornography rings busted. In both cases the people running the rings were spread across more than one country. Both cases included people from the United States and Canada. The sites listed on the white paper on this topic are great for information on protecting children from predators as well as informing parents on the issues, dangers, and prevention of child pornography. There are some organizations listed in it that help with these issues.

In this addendum I will give some additional sites for that purpose as well as some sites with more recent information. Some of these will be about specific cases and others will be about the laws that are in place to help protect our children. One of the sites of particular interest included help and support from the adult film industry. Some of the people in this industry have gotten together to help stop child pornography and the people who keep it going.

This group helps to report and investigate suspected child pornographers and their customers in order to assist the government agencies with their reviews of suspected sites. Some law-enforcement officials contend that disrupting the companies making a profit off child pornography may only be the tip of the iceberg. Matt Dunn, of the Cyber Crimes Center at the Immigration and Customs Enforcement bureau , said that non-commercial child pornography -- images shared without money changing hands -- is more of a concern than the for-profit industry. Swapping child porn over file-sharing networks is ongoing -- and it's usually non-commercial, Dunn said.

Doctors, police officers, sheriff's deputies, school teachers, government agents, attorneys and church preachers Since the websites -- with names like "Excited Angels" and "Boys Say Go" -- went offline in January, the number of active commercial child porn sites has nosedived from perhaps to the single digits, said Matt Dunn, of the Department of Homeland Security's Immigration and Custom's Enforcement ICE , which was the lead law enforcement agency. Like Dunn, he believes the bust has dealt a fatal blow to the child-porn-for-money market -- at least for now.

Eleven members of the child porn ring were located in Belarus and arrested in In January of this year, Ukrainian authorities arrested five more. The ring used a variety of online and traditional payment methods, elaborate defense measures and a franchise business model one Interpol agent compared to a fast food chain to make millions of dollars providing 10, Americans and 20, others across the globe access to images and videos of sexually exploited boys and girls , some reportedly as young as 3 years old. He is also known locally as a speaker and presenter on Internet safety issues, and as a crusader against online pornography. Ropelato issued a press release making that and other uncredited statistical claims on 6 February [47]. The claim remained on his 'Pornography Statistics' page until at least 6 March [48], but had been deleted from the page by 15 March [49] according to the Internet Archive's WayBackMachine.

His press release of 12 March [50] which claimed to 'update' his previous uncredited 'statistics' about the 'worldwide pornography industry' did not mention child pornography. At least two journalists have attempted, without success, to ascertain sources of 'statistics' from Ropelato see below. My phone call to a number listed on the sites registration wasn't returned, and an e-mail to the sites contact address got bounced back to me. Hence, there was no basis for the claim in , nor its repetition in that the so-called "commercial enterprise" is growing at all, let alone is "among the fastest growing". September A research report published by the Australian Institute of Criminology "AIC" , a Commonwealth statutory authority, stated[54]: Affordable technology has greatly facilitated the production and distribution of child pornography - a multi-billion dollar industry globally.

Ropelato J Internet pornography statistics. Internet Filter Review. Ropelato is the only source cited in the above AIC report for its "multi-billion dollar industry" claim. In November , Seth Lubove reported Where did Third Way get that notion? The small firm in Provo, Utah, is in the business of scaring parents into buying software to protect their kids from Internet smut. Jared Martin, who owns Family Safe Media, says he got his porn statistics from Internet Filter Review, a Web site that recommends content-blocking software. He says he got the age item from The Drug of the New Millennium, a book about the dangers of porn self-published in by Mark Kastleman, a self-professed former porn addict in Orem, Utah, who counsels other porn fiends.

The statistic was disowned in April by the organisations to which it had been, and still is being, attributed i. The history of this number is outlined below. House of Representatives' Committee on Energy and Commerce , issued a press release[59] which claimed: Child pornography is apparently a multibillion Twenty billion dollars. As a result of the April publicity, two U. But a McKinsey spokesman painted a different picture for me: "The number was not calculated or generated by McKinsey," he wrote in an email. Instead, for a pro bono analysis for Standard Chartered, he said, McKinsey used a number that appeared in a report last year by End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes, an international advocacy group.

I have scoured our Web site, too. In an email response, spokeswoman Joann Donnellan said, "If it is determined that this ends up not being a reliable statistic, NCMEC will stop citing McKinsey as the source and will also stop citing a specific number. As I wrote last year On 24 July he told the U. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation that: "A recent report by McKinsey Worldwide estimated that today commercial child pornography is a multi-billion-dollar industry worldwide, fueled by the Internet.

Bialik subsequently reported on 27 Apr But Allison Hickling, a spokeswoman for the United Nations child agency, told me in an email, "The number is not attributable to Unicef -- we do not collect data on this issue. He said the Council won't use the number in the future, and added in an email, "I think we have what I would call a case of information laundering: You state a figure on something, somebody else [says] it, and then you and others [saying] it back, and thus it becomes clean and true.

Perhaps this discussion will help instill more rigor in the future. This is because a significant amount, possibly most, of the trade in child sexual abuse images takes place at no cost via Usenet newsgroups, IRC Internet Relay Chat , Instant Messaging, P2P technologies, email, etc. The images themselves, not money, are the trading currency. Extensive information about the nature of the non-commercial trade is available in the book: Beyond tolerance : child pornography on the Internet by Philip Jenkins. New York University Press, ISBN: Non-commercial criminal activity was referred to during an AFP media briefing about 'Operation Centurion' June which concerned a legitimate web site that had been broken into for the purpose of uploading illegal images to it: Journalist: The people who put these images up on a site, are they getting paid, [ AFP Andrew Colvin: We're not talking about a crime that's driven by a financial motive, there's other motivations here.

So, while there may be some sites that attract a financial return, that's not the motivation here. So the answer to your question is no really, that's not what's motivating people, people aren't necessarily making a lot of money. Phinney, aided by Assistant County Attorney Sarah Warecki, also said society needs deterrence because "predators such as Curry provide the motivation to this multibillion-dollar industry,". Child Pornography Dodges Detection on Web - Women's eNews Child-porn ads--the bulk of which feature girls, some under are pouring into e-mail in-boxes.

Something went wrong! Online or offline, child pornography is illegal in the United States and most other countries. Galgiani called for passage of As. UN expert: child porn on Internet increases The number of Web sites containing child pornography is increasing and more images show serious abuses, a U. More than 4 million Web sites worldwide show images of children being sexually exploited, said the U. She recommended countries share information on sites containing child pornography in order to block them faster. Now his tools are helping bust sex-trafficking rings. More than 1 million are children. Nearly one-quarter are bought and sold as sex slaves. Only 1-in victims of human trafficking is ever rescued.

High profits and low risk make human trafficking one of the fastest-growing and most lucrative crimes on the planet; the U. But, what about the children whose photos or videos he has in his possession? What circumstances occurred whereby Little more than a decade ago, child pornography was a multi-billion dollar commercial enterprise and was among the fastest growing businesses on the Internet. Today, the commercial trade of child pornography online has been significantly reduced due to a variety of successful efforts to combat its growth.

Lori Handrahan When these kinds of crimes are ignored by the Department of Justice, there is a clear crisis in our Homeland. Too many police are involved. Holder is allowing this national epidemic of child porn to flourish inside our justice system, crippling our most vulnerable citizens; our children. Half of all child porn now originates in America.

The profits are massive. McLees, special agent in charge of the Newark office of U. Should Navy vet get prison for 'staggering' child porn collection? When police searched Michael Jachim's bedroom in March, they found a safe. On Tuesday, a DuPage County judge is scheduled to rule whether Jachim will go to prison for child pornography. Prosecutors said his DVD Reverend Dr. Mark Griggs, 50, of…. While it takes just common sense to refrain from committing such crimes, we discuss about five gruesome facts on child pornography for those that can't realize the disastrous outcomes of the crime.

The children might feel like being raped time and again when someone watches it. Victims of child pornography are abused when the images are first taken and they are abused again each and every time these horrendous images are viewed. Our department will continue to investigate and prosecute anyone who possesses or disseminates child pornography. Thousands of bottles of beer smashed in sharia crackdown in Nigeria Head of religious police warns that officers will stop consumption of alcohol as , bottles are publicly destroyed. Thousands of bottles of beer smashed in sharia crackdown in Nigeria. As former U. The simple fact is that drug use is wrong. Why some people are so sure they're right, even when they are not: Insight suggests ways to communicate with people who ignore evidence that contradicts cherished beliefs Two studies examine the personality characteristics that drive dogmatism in the religious and nonreligious.

In both groups, higher critical reasoning skills were associated with lower levels of dogmatism. But these two groups diverge in how moral concern influences their dogmatic thinking. While more empathy may sound desirable, untempered empathy can be dangerous, Jack said. They believe they are righting wrongs and protecting something sacred. Psychosis Empathy is linked to both being female and to psychosis, but not to autism. Empathy is a key mentalistic ability which is said to be deficient in both autistics and psychotics, along with most other such skills. But according to the diametric model of mental illness, autism spectrum disorder ASD is symptomatically the opposite of psychotic spectrum disorder PSD , such as schizophrenia.

Indeed, according to the model, empathy can even be an instance of hyper-mentalism, as I showed in a previous post. Now the first genome-wide association study GWAS to do so has examined self-reported measures of empathy, notably Empathy Quotient EQ , in 46, research participants recruited from 23andMe Inc. As figure 3 below from the paper reporting the findings illustrates:. As predicted, based on earlier work, we confirmed a significant female advantage on the EQ …. We identified similar SNP heritability and high genetic correlation between the sexes. Also, as predicted, we identified a significant negative genetic correlation between autism and the EQ ….

We also identified a significant positive genetic correlation between the EQ and risk for schizophrenia … , risk for anorexia nervosa … , and extraversion …. Drug WarRant A blog from the front lines of the drug war with news, analysis, and the occasional rant. Rudy was a father of five who was passing by a house targeted by narcotics officers attempting to serve a parole violation warrant and the police mistakenly thought he was the one they were there to arrest. They chased Cardenas, and he fled, apparently afraid of them they were not uniformed.

Cardenas was shot multiple times in the back. Dorothy Duckett, 78, told the Mercury News she looked out her fifth-floor window after hearing one gunshot and saw Cardenas pleading for his life. Ashley went outside at night with a family friend to move their freshly washed car under shelter. DEA agents, interested in her father, were staking out the house, and believing that her father was driving, shot and killed Ashley. The agents did not have a warrant for her father. Read The Murder of Ashley. Walker and three companions were pulled over in an SUV by police in a drug investigation.

No drugs or weapons were found, but Walker was shot in the head. Walker was a devoted husband and father, a respected member of his church, and a year middle-management employee of Blue Cross and Blue Shield. Deputy David Glisson, who killed Walker, was fired three months later for failing to cooperate in an investigation into the shooting. The Autism-Psychosis model proposes that an individual can only have one or the other Psychosis or Autism. Last edited: May 29, Joined Oct 4, Posts 36, Online 47m. Autism May Diminish Belief in God People who are less adept at guessing the thoughts and feelings of others are less likely to believe in God. Autism May Diminish Belief in God.

For some sufferers religious delusions or intense religiously-based irrational thinking may be a component of their symptoms, for instance they may believe that they have been sent by God to become a great prophet. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan. Blasphemy laws and mental illness in Pakistan There is emerging evidence that individuals who are mentally ill are overrepresented in the group of defendants prosecuted under the blasphemy laws of Pakistan.

This article discusses the background of blasphemy legislation in Pakistan, and proposes causal interactions between underlying mental illness in the defendant and prosecution for blasphemy. It sketches possible legal safeguards for such blasphemy defendants with mental illness in mental health legislation. The entire spectrum of psychopathology lends itself to various behavioural infringements that could fall foul of the blasphemy laws in place in Pakistan. Individuals with psychotic disorders, such as mania and schizophrenia, can present symptoms of grandiose and bizarre delusional systems of being of divine origin, behavioural disinhibition and lack of insight, which place them at risk of prosecution under these laws.

Individuals with autism, with varying degrees of intellectual disability, are another diagnostic group also at risk of not being able to follow social rules of due reverence and regard for what the community holds sacrosanct. Neurotic disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder can also create overbearing and compelling pressures on individuals to blaspheme in some instances, and this can have serious legal consequences if the targets of the blasphemy are revered by the community.

The association of mental illness and blasphemy allegations can also be more complex. Sexual abuse of vulnerable individuals with intellectual disabilities has on occasion been masked by allegations of blasphemy by abusers when they fear discovery. The lack of any legal protections for such vulnerable blasphemy defendants ensures that their testimony is extracted when they fear for their lives, and the sex abuse issue is concealed behind the allegations of blasphemy.

In other cases, physical abuse can be an interacting factor, where the blasphemy allegations are raised against an individual with autism for example, when various attempts to physically discipline the individual have failed, and have, instead, resulted in severe physical injuries, which could lead to criminal prosecution against the abusers, unless blasphemy is raised as the reason why the discipline was implemented in the first place.

The most commonly cited criticism of the blasphemy laws is that they are used by the majority community to victimise religious minorities. Nevertheless, it is often the case that the person who is alleged to have committed the blasphemy has underlying vulnerabilities that explain why that person in particular stands so charged, and not others within the same disadvantaged community.

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